Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Various health issues tend to affect women across the globe. In the last few decades, these issues have gradually proved to be very important given that they not only affect women, but also affect men and the entire society.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
However, even with concerted efforts, insecure abortion and childbirth still lead to the death of women. Most women seek the intervention of birth control to manage their sexual and reproductive lives. On the other hand, millions of people live unhappily due to infertility.
Other issues such as infection of the women reproductive tracts affect many women globally. The universal agreement is that women reproductive health is impacted by the correlation between different compounded factors (Hull et al., 1996).
Consequently, children and men experience the impact of these issues either directly or indirectly.
Issues affecting woman reproductive health
Every human being is entitled to his or her opinions, convictions, emotions, apprehension, and worries concerning sexuality and reproduction.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Despite having rights, beliefs relating to reproductive health are often influenced by personal experiences, relations, religion, peers, and media (Liamputtong, 2000).
The influences are in fact socially constructed. By extension, these perceptions affect the health of women in different ways. The perception of the society concerning the reproductive health of women often influences the subject of social policy in many societies.
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Reproductive health incorporates the conditions in which the reproduction cycles are realized in the whole body, psychological and communal well-being. It is not the sheer lack of disorder or illnesses of the reproductive cycles.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
For most women, the ability to be in good reproductive health means having the capacity to reproduce children successfully (Liamputtong, 2007). It also entails giving birth to healthy infants, survival of the child, and retaining the mother’s good health.
However, this begins with safety throughout the pregnancy and child delivery. It also includes the freedom to regulate fertility devoid of health hazards. The right to perform and take pleasure in harmless sexual relationship is also a critical element of reproductive health.
In order to experience good reproductive health, women deserve the right to healthy sexual development. They should be able to decide the number of offspring they want to have and the spacing between them.
They should be free from illnesses and be able to receive healthcare when needed. In addition, women should be free from cruelty and injurious practices including domestic violence and stereotyping (Cusack & Cook, 2010).
They should have the capacity to decide without being discriminated or intimidated. However, this is not always the case given that many women experience reproductive health issues that often make life unbearable for them and those around them including men and children.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Women often face hindrances in receiving reproductive care services. Studies show that this is particularly the case in the field of family planning. The characteristics and rate of recurrence vary (McClelland & Liamputtong, 2006).
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The variation depends on various aspects such as ethnicity, religious affiliation, physical settings, age and sexual orientation. Women with disability are likely to have challenges in accessing a practicing gynecologist.
Similarly, a woman who lives in the countryside may face challenges in having well-timed emergency contraception.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Violence against women
A huge percentage of women undergo violence and its negative effects founded on their gender and inequality in the society (Sherris, 2002). Women who experience corporeal, sexual or mental violence undergo numerous health predicaments often in silence.
They are characterized by poor physical and psychological health, as well as physical injuries. Consequently, they consume additional therapeutic resources than those who are not abused.
Gender violence against women often emerges from the fact that they have limited societal and financial power. Violence against women is likely to occur in societies where gender functions are firmly identified and implemented.
In such cultures, masculinity is strongly linked to hardiness, male admiration, and dominance. At this point, reprimanding children and women is acceptable with aggressiveness considered as an ordinary avenue for resolving disagreements.
Poverty, male wealth-control, and relationship unsteadiness are also sources of the intimate partner violence.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Women who experience violence are unlikely to inform anybody about their health position. When such women are physically injured, they are likely to suffer in silence and eventually die from injuries. Even when the status is reported, some injuries may be fatal.
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When such women escape from physical harm, they definitely become traumatized. Such women are characterized by harmful health conducts including drug and alcohol abuse.
Based on this, women develop persistent problems including headaches, and neurological problems including seizures and heart problems (Sherris, 2002).
Families of women victims who undergo violence may suffer financially in situations where such women are not able to perform their duties. Children may suffer from malnutrition when the mother fails to meet their nutritional needs.
When children are old enough, they may end up being criminals thereby affecting the entire society (Liamputtong, 2007).
Gender-based brutality affects the reproductive health of women. Indeed, women who go through intimate partner violence are likely to experience gynecological setbacks. These may include infertility and urinary tract diseases. Other problems may entail fibroids, and sexual dysfunction.
Caesarean Section (CS)
The rate of CS has been increasing worldwide particularly in the first world countries. Epidemiological proof concerning the effect of CS on maternal morbidity has been documented (Keally et al., 2010). The practice of CS emerges from various factors.
These include clinical and non-clinical factors. However, the non-clinical factors involve the avoidance of lawsuits by caregivers, the consideration of danger, medical practice, and maternal dread of pain and birth.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Although CS plays a central role in preventing maternal mortality, it is related to the rising rates of maternal morbidity (Shrage, 2003). These include possible deadly complications such as re-hospitalization, sepsis, and numbing impediments.
Medical conditions may necessitate the conduction of emergency CS. However, after changes in maternal age, the prevailing clinical complications, and demographic aspects, the emergency CS quadruples tend to comprise of life threatening incidents.
Regardless of the kind of CS, complications after operations are estimated at 36 percent.
It is apparent that issues in women reproductive health have far-reaching implications not only on women, but also in the society as a whole (Selin, 2010).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
First, poor women reproductive health may lead to mortality. Complications that arise during pregnancy and child delivery are identified as the primary causes of morbidity and mortality amidst women aged between 16 and 50 years (World Bank, 2013).
Maternal death, which is closely linked to women and reproductive health, is approximated to kill more than five hundred thousand women annually. From every woman who dies from maternal mortality, about thirty experience the incapacitating harm.
The stereotyping of women as channels of reproduction and as mothers for a long time has been activated, imposed, and continued through state Act, legislation and rules. Stereotyping disallows or limits the accessibility to inexpensive contraceptives, services, and information.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Anybody who opposes abortion seeks to perpetrate the stereotype that women are susceptible and feeble hence require protection in order to shore up the endeavor to abolish abortion.
The ideology that women lack the ability to make decisions is often implemented through legislations that inter alia permit aggressive sterilization of women (Cusack & Cook, 2010).
Stereotype as a major health reproductive issue
Several social, pervasive, and persistent stereotypical ideals influence women accessibility to reproductive health. In fact, accessibility to healthcare services is one of the areas where women face serious challenges particularly when it comes to family planning.
The challenges facing women vary depending on the nature and frequency with which they affect women (Oxaal & Baden, 1996).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Other factors that may pose increased challenges are sexual orientation and personal attributes including age, religion, as well as the wealth and education background. In other instances, the geographical location is an important factor to consider.
Whereas challenges that women face are varied, stereotyping remains to be one of the major social challenges that need inquiry.
Webb (2003) claims that this could be attributed to the fact that gender stereotyping have persisted despite studies and awareness campaigns that have been carried out.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Stereotypes particularly in women have been perpetuated by various policies and strategies, choreographed legal system, and customary practices that deny women access to reproductive health.
For instance, those who oppose divorce have portrayed women as weak and vulnerable hence require security.
In addition, women have been portrayed as poor decision-makers. The notions have been founded on various laws and policies that have resulted into practices such as forceful sterilization.
However, stereotypes can also be useful particularly where one gets security owing to the familiarity accruing due to stereotypes. Various studies over the years indicated that stereotypes have gross effects on women. In one way or the other, stereotype is not problematic.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Nonetheless, it only becomes challenging when the individual traits are violated. When stereotypes ignore the basic human rights of women and create a barrier between men and women, then it becomes a problem.
Feminist theory suggests that stereotypes that create gender hierarchies where men are portrayed to be superior to women are dangerous and should not be allowed to perpetuate within the societal norms (Webb, 2003).
Feminist theory suggests that when individuals critically look into the laws, norms, policies, strategies, and practices that perpetuate negative stereotype that look down upon women, it becomes apparent that we should deal with the discriminations that affect women.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Further understanding of how negative stereotype affects women reproductive health is important in dealing with women accessibility, availability, and quality of healthcare services as well as information.
In case there is need to eliminate the discrimination of women in the reproductive health, then a critical evaluation of gender stereotype has to be undertaken.
In fact, not only does discrimination needs to be eliminated but also other violations that hinder reproductive health in women must be eradicated (Oxaal & Baden, 1996).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
The first step in eliminating gender stereotype is through understanding its origin via naming. Naming exposes gender stereotype practices, explores its foundations, the contexts, and ways through which it is perpetuated in the society.
Once the negative gender stereotype has been identified, it becomes easy to evaluate the effects on female reproductive health and the manner in which it violates women rights (Webb, 2004).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
In this context, gender stereotype is the conception of roles and responsibilities that should be performed by either gender particularly women. Gender stereotype also encompasses some of the individual attributes that are perceived to belong only to either gender.
From this viewpoint, gender stereotype presumes some attributes, behaviors, roles, and responsibilities that are specific to either men or women.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
In fact, the concept is applied in the acknowledgment of certain attributes and roles belonging to the social group of either men or women (Oxaal & Baden, 1996).
The characteristics of gender stereotype include being pervasive and perpetuating. Gender stereotype cuts across cultures and its existence takes time to change. As such, negative stereotype is destructive and has dire consequences particularly on the targeted group (Cusack & Cook, 2010).
Feminist theorists argue that negative gender stereotypes over the centuries have been directed towards women. As a result, women have faced serious discriminative practices, abuses, and violence that have affected their social and economic wellbeing.
In particular, negative gender discrimination directed towards women has led to poor reproductive health (Cook et al., 2010). For instance, negative gender discrimination has led to low accessibility to maternal health care, maternal mortality, and morbidity, as well as increased infant mortality.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Addressing these issues must begin with addressing the negative gender stereotypes directed towards women.
Gender stereotype varies based on country, race, social status, and economic capabilities. Studies indicate that gender stereotype towards women is low in developed countries compared to the developing countries.
In addition, the economically stable women face little discrimination due to gender stereotype. For example, whites are less stereotyped compared to blacks (Cusack & Cook, 2010). All these factors determine the level of effect stereotyping has on individuals.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Poor African women face most burdens of gender stereotyping in relation to the rich urban elites. In other words, the effect of negative gender stereotype depends on various factors.
The effects are also replicated in the women reproductive health. Studies indicate that gender stereotype is one of the most important issues that affect woman reproductive health (Cusack & Cook, 2010).
Feminist theorists predict that relieving a woman from gender stereotype will reduce women burden by half.
The continuous establishments of unfavorable attributes on women are the result of the accruing chronological laws and practices linked to sexual health services.
For instance, women are required to seek the approval of their husbands and other family male leaders when they are to be infantilized (Cook et al., 2010). In fact, it is evident that some national legislatures make laws that consider women as mere caregivers in households.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
In addition, there are provisions that restrict the roles of women to their duties at homes. Women without children while pursuing the request for contraceptives are considered as rebuffing the support of the government as well as exasperating the common good.
There are several occasions where adjudicators have used exorbitant female stereotypes. For example, there have been cases of women being denied the participation in the legal career based on the fact the best place for women is the family field.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
In essence, the principal duty of a female involves childbearing and being a mother (Cook et al., 2010). Moreover, several legislations have subjected women to banning of abortions and only allowing females considered by the physicians to be in the best interests of a woman’s health.
It is evident that male members with the support of religious leaders usually endorse the legislations disallowing abortions. The passages of such laws reveal the antagonistic labels to females’ state of health and decent action.
The relaxations of abortion decrees are gradually rising in most states. These lead to the approvals that there are cases where women health statuses surpass the country’s concerns as far as keeping pregnancies are concerned.
Conversely, opponents of abortions are increasingly developing new arguments based on the idea that females have enhanced shelter from the injuries associated with abortions. In other words, women are unable to recognize such harms personally.
Due to the shield offered to the doctors by the jury from the law making organs, women independence in accessing reproductive wellbeing services is disrespected.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
For example, the application of the restrictive stereotyping by healthcare service providers and women requesting for abortion procedures through voicing the ethical values indicate how women are perceived to be immoral and bigoted (Hadley, 1996).
Many international pacts relating to the domestic rules disallow prejudice on grounds of sexual characteristics. However, discrimination continues to exist based on gender when accessing health services in many countries even though the laws outlaw intolerance on such grounds.
Women face various challenges in their reproductive health. These range from violence to the discriminations accruing due to gender stereotype. However, gender stereotype has emerged to be the most important factor affecting women reproductive health.
Gender stereotype leads to the indirect discrimination that severely affects women reproductive health. As indicated, eliminating gender stereotype improves the woman reproductive health by half.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
However, doing away with gender stereotype requires the concerted effort from all the societal stakeholders. The elimination must begin by changing the laws and policies that indirectly perpetuate gender discrimination.
In addition, the society must appreciate the roles women play in social and economic development in order to improve their reproductive health.
The sexual health risks of women who have sex with women (WSW) are poorly understood (Fethers et al, 2000). Such women have traditionally been perceived as being a low risk group, and as a result have failed to be included in initiatives designed to improve awareness and uptake of screening for cervical cancer and sexually transmitted infections. Many WSW hold misconceptions about their risk and services available to them, misconceptions which can be compounded by healthcare provider ignorance. That health professionals are ill-informed regarding the range of sexual health issues affecting WSW is unsurprising, considering the dearth of information in undergraduate education, mainstream medical literature, and textbooks.
One reason for this lack of evidence may be in part due to the historical context of HIV in the men who have sex with men (MSM) community, and the resultant targeting of research into this group within the LGBT+ community. Women’s Sexual Health Essay
However WSW are at risk of sexual ill‐health and STI infections, conditions exacerbated by barriers to accessing and engaging with sexual health care. This literature review has therefore been conducted to examine:
I. Access to sexual health care
II. Safe sexual practices
III. STI & cervical cytology outcomes among lesbian and bisexual women, and women who have sex with women (WSW).
Over the last 25 years sexual health has become one of the most important areas of health care across the world a global pandemic of HIV, the rapid worldwide spread of other sexually transmitted infections and an increasing awareness of sexual health issues by the public globally have all increased enormously the needs of those dealing with sexual health problems to have access to information on theory and practice that can help them adverse the diversity of issues they now face Miller and Green (2002). According to WHO Sexual health is a state of complete physical, emotional, mental and social well-being related to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected and fulfilled WHO (2002). This essay focuses to describe about sexual health, importance of sexual health promotion in teenagers, different levels of interventions, sexual health policies, theories and different sexual health strategies.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
AIM OF THIS ESSAY
According to formally family planning association sexual health defined as the capacity and freedom to enjoy and express sexuality without fear of exploitation, repression physical and emotional harm FPA (2007). Rising STI rates and increasing termination rates DH (2008) indicate there is now a real need to address both issues through progressive work in sexual health care. Indeed, the HPA (2008) highlighted a clear need for people to be aware of how they can protect themselves from unplanned pregnancy and STIs, and the importance of sexual health promotion.
The essay will begin with a brief overview of sexual health promotion in young men and women in UK. The UK has the worst sexual health record in Western Europe while the teenage pregnancy rates and sexually transmitted infections including HIV and sexual violence are increasing. So the importance of sexual health promotion is increasing within young men and women. The aim of this essay is to highlights the need to reduce sexually transmitted infections among teenagers both girls and boys DH (2010) .young people reflects concerns about unintended teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections .Researches are showing that how being young influences sexual behaviours exploring issues including teenage negotiation of contraception and the influence of gender and peer norms both UK and internationally ( Widdice et al. 2006).High rates of sexually transmitted continue to be reported in UK,especially among young people, men who have sex with men and some ethnic minority populations these groups remain at greatest risk infection Miles (2006). I choose the group teenagers (young men and young women) with the age group of 14 to 24for this essay. I selected the teenagers for this assignment because now the rate of teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, HIV and sexual violence is increasing in UK.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
IMPORTANCE OF SEXUAL HEALTH PROMOTION
The Importance of sexual health promotion in teenagers is to reduce teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Health care providers play a valuable role in educating their patients, and accuracy and completeness of information are the accepted standards in medicine Santelli (2008) Clinicians are held to professional standards involving medical and public health ethics, and are guided by professional health organizations. Guidelines in preventive medicine for HIV, other STIs and unintended pregnancy support the delivery of needed services, including counselling on condom and contraceptive use. Although recognition of evidence-based medicine has been increasing, wide variation exists in medical practices; often, the provider’s judgment is a component in determining patient care. Make awareness about the supportive clinics and provide counselling to the teenagers parents as well AMA (2009).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Sexuality is an important part of one’s health and, quality of life and general well being. Sexuality is an integral part of the total person, affecting the way each individual from birth to death to every single person. A healthy sense of sexuality can provide numerous benefits including a link with the future through procreation, a means of pleasure and physical release, a sense of connection with others and a contribution of self identity Norbun and Rosenfeld (2004). A teenager may go through many physical, mental, emotional, and social changes. The biggest change is puberty that means becoming sexually mature. It usually happens between ages 10 and 14 for girls and ages 12 and 16 for boys. As their body changes, the teenagers may have questions about sex and sexual health. During this time, they start to develop their own unique personality and opinions. Some changes that they might notice including, increased independence from their parents, more concerns about body image and clothes, more influence from peers, Greater ability to sense right and wrong. All of these changes can sometimes seem overwhelming Medline plus (2011).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
LEGAL ISSUES OF SEXUAL HEALTH PROMOTION
In the past there has been a confused legal response to creating a balance between protecting vulnerable members of society, and giving people the right to access support for sexual health problems. The legal structure in the UK divides into civil law and criminal law. Legislation can place boundaries on the extent to which health care workers may become involved in promoting the sexual health of an individual. The introduction of the Human Rights Act (2000) has an impact on the rights of the individual and the provision of health care. Criminal law governs people’s sexual behaviour by making some activities unlawful. The purpose of the legislation is to prohibit certain sexual activities and prevent exploitation .To provide young people with the knowledge, skills and confidence to resist any pressure to have inappropriate, early or unwanted sexual relationships and to manage their sexual health .To use discussion about sex and relationships to help young people develop their self-esteem and self-awareness. .To allow young people space to explore their values and attitudes .To encourage young people to make informed decisions about their behaviour, personal relationships and sexual health .To use discussion about sex and relationships to help young people develop their self-esteem and self-awareness Mellor and Williams (2005).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
SEXUAL HEALTH PROMOTION THEORIES
This implies that whether an individual puts protection that is contraception and condoms) into practice depends on the susceptibility to pregnancy or STI infection, severity of that occurrence, the result of implementation of self protection, and the barriers to implementation (Abraham and Sheeran 2005) The motivation theory is a more complex model that contains lots of components such as perceptions of severity, response costs, vulnerability, pleasure and social approval. It also includes belief that the suggested behaviour will reduce the threat and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a person’s belief that they can be successful in carrying out the suggested behaviour (Norman et al. 2005)Women’s Sexual Health Essay
The theory of planned behaviour is a complex theory. An individual’s perceived behavioural control is the expectation that behaviour is within their control, and therefore is linked to efficacy and autonomy. Within perceived behavioural control lie several factors, including information and skill (Conner and Norman 2005).
Social cognition theory focuses on individual motivation and action based on three types of expectancy. These are the situation outcome, action outcome and perceived self-efficacy. The theories are complex and therefore need further study before putting them into practice NICE (2007) recommended that trained in sexual health care professionals put the theories into practice in one-to-one structured discussions with clients.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
SEXUAL HEALTH STRATEGIES
Increase the contribution of youth mothers in education, guidance or work to decrease the danger of long term social elimination. The national strategy for sexual health and HIV accepted that the consequences of poor sexual health can be severe leading to amongst other outcomes unwanted pregnancy and termination. The strategy has established a number of key indicators including to increase access to sexual health services, including contraception, particularly to young people. To increase the percentage of young people aged 15-24 accepting screening for Chlamydia. To provide access to Genito-Urinary Medicine clinics within 48 hours DH (2001) .The legal age for young people to consent to have sex is still 16, whether they are straight, gay or bisexual. The aim of sexual offences act 2003 is to protect the rights and interests of young people, and make it easier to prosecute people who pressure or force others into having sex they don’t want. Although the age of consent remains at 16, the law is not intended to prosecute mutually agreed teenage sexual activity between two young people of a similar age, unless it involves abuse or exploitation. Young people, including those under 13 will continue to have the right to confidential advice on contraception, condoms, pregnancy and abortion Mellor and Williams (2005).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
To remove the main barriers of sexual health care is to provide health education and that teaches about the sexual health care and care giving clinics. studies show that training in the area of human sexuality and taking sexual histories increases comfort and with addressing sexual health Nussbaum and Rosenfeld (2004).Sex education is offered in many schools, but don’t count on classroom instruction alone. Sex education needs to happen at home, too. Sex education basics may be covered in health class, but the teenagers might not hear or understand everything he or she needs to know to make tough choices about sex. Awkward as it may be, sex education is a parent’s responsibility. By reinforcing and supplementing what the teen learns in school, teachers can set the stage for a lifetime of healthy sexuality. Various factors peer pressure, curiosity and loneliness, to name a few steer some teenagers into early sexual activity. But there’s no rush. Sex is an adult behaviour. In the meantime, there are many other ways to express affection intimate talks, long walks, holding hands, listening to music, dancing, kissing, touching and hugging. If you’re teen becomes sexually active — whether you think he or she is ready or not it may be more important than ever to keep the conversation going. State your feelings openly and honestly. Remind the teenagers that you expect him or her to take sex and the associated responsibilities seriously.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Stress the importance of safe sex, and make sure your teen understands how to get and use contraception. You might talk about keeping a sexual relationship exclusive, not only as a matter of trust and respect but also to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Also set and enforce reasonable boundaries, such as curfews and rules about visits from friends of the opposite sex.Teenager’s doctor can help, too. A routine check-up can give teen the opportunity to address sexual activity and other behaviours in a supportive, confidential atmosphere — as well as learn about contraception and safe sex. For girls, the doctor may also stress the importance of routine human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination to help prevent genital warts and cervical cancer MFMER (2009).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Now we are failing young people in their sexual health needs, given an increasing trend in sexually transmitted infections and unplanned teenage pregnancies .significant changes can achieve by numerous endeavours including, equipping young people with the right knowledge, reaching their aspects of themselves which hold significant value in their present day lives to get focus and attention, providing solid basement of self esteem and self preservations in the first place. This must be delivered by open minded, unbiased and non judgemental professionals in a relaxed and friendly atmosphere.HPA (2008). A number of government education initiatives over the last 10 years including the healthy schools status programme. The aim of this curriculum is to support the young people as individual and to improve their concept about sexual health in society. But in some schools trained staff refused to implement this strategies and this act as a barrier of communication with young people DH (2005) sexual relationship education in school by trained confident and up to date professionals, employing straight forward language can make an awareness of pupils existing knowledge Ingham et al (2009).young people’s sexual health clinics are available and confidentiality of service is very important. Condom distribution services are also available locally for young people. Now the sexual health campaigns for teenagers are changed from use of condoms and condom essential campaigns to a new campaign. It aims to improve the knowledge and encourage open communication about relationships among young people, their parents and professionals DH and DCSF (2009).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
.the UK is still predominantly a patriarchal society. Gender imbalance can create a negative imbalance in our society. It has a reverse role when it comes to a sexual health provision. Young people’s contraceptive clinics habitually target young females. This stems from a political system desiring to protect itself from the negative consequences of un planned pregnancies ,neglecting young male services to the determent of their sexual health and well being Evans(2008).teenage pregnancy is increasing in UK among highest in Europe by year by year. There are two goals, to decrease teenage conceptions among under18 and get more teenagers parents for education, training and employment to reduce the risk. These goals were accomplished through government media voluntary and private sectors to change young peoples to sexual behaviour DCSF (2010).Health promotion programmes should be adaptable and innovative and offering different methods for feelings and expressions,and opportunities to help build self esteem. There are various economic and social influences contribute hopelessness in young people .young people are trying to express their individuality and find their position in the world Cater and Coleman (2006).According to Department of Health(2009)risk assessment is carried out by three tyre approach they are primary ,secondary and tertiary approach. In primary ,risk to teenagers that means unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections including HIV ,secondary risk is undiagnosed Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Symptomatic sexually transmitted infections, infertility and pelvic inflammatory infections etc Territory risk is known as collateral risk to another chronic illness like exacerbation to DM depression or leukaemia .these three approaches allows for effective evaluation of both sexual and holistic consequences of risk taking behaviour among young men and women.
Another example of health promotion planning support is the effective sexual health promotion tool kit. It provides supportive toolkit for the professionals working with young people on sexual health promotion including practical tips for building self esteem and effective health promotion delivery DH (2002).Women’s Sexual Health Essay Dating violence is a serious problem among adolescents and young adults. Understanding teens’ reaction to dating violence offer the potential to understand the factors that lead to perpetration of violent behaviour and to elucidate prevention strategies Dating violence, that is, violence between non-cohabitating, but courting individuals includes physical abuse, psychological abuse, and sexual abuse and has been recognized as an international and national public health problem of major proportion A great deal of current research indicates that dating violence is a serious problem among adolescents and young adults today Reyburn(2007).
Using contraception also reduces the chance of pregnancy, but the type of contraception matters, and some methods are typically more effective than others. This essential fact is the key element of the analyses reported by the research team. The investigators guess how an enormous deal of the decrease in teen pregnancy rates might be credited to better contraception by probing shifts in the types of method used at last sex combined with the typical failure rates of these methods. How shifts in contraceptive use might give to declines in pregnancy rates have not been used beforehand improves on previous attempts to estimate the behaviours fundamental changing pregnancy rates. While more teenagers are doing the right thing adults continue to debate whether the reduction in accidental pregnancies is the result of efforts to encourage abstinence or to promote improved contraceptive protection. The analyses offered here cannot distinguish the factors and motives behind reductions in sexual risk taking among teenagers SAM (2004).Women’s Sexual Health Essay
The counselling with young people for their sexual health problems, and the importance of sexual health promotion will also help tanagers to get a positive approach to the area of sexual health (Lopez et al. 2008) .Thoughtful, comprehensive approaches from providers are important, given that much of the information adolescents receive on sexuality and sexual risk is erroneous and unhealthy for them (Teitelman et al. 2009). Although this study has explored the content of preventive care received by adolescents at high risk, access to care is also critical, because most adolescents—particularly low-income adolescents, who are at highest risk of pregnancy and STIs do not make normal preventive care visits. For the at-risk adolescents who do present for a clinic visit, it is all the more important to provide effective prevention counselling (Chandra et al. 2008).Pre teenage education and counselling about the prevention of un wanted teenage pregnancies, STIs and HIV to teenagers is very important.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
Dual protection refers to strategies that provide guard from unnecessary pregnancy and STIs, as well as HIV. Dual shield can take various forms, including the use of condoms only or the use of condoms with a different form of contraception and the support of emergency contraception, for added safety in opposition to unwanted pregnancy. Except a couple know they are free of HIV and other STIs and are not at risk through sexual activity with others, condoms are the key constituent of double protection. Thus, better interventions are essential which hold up women Women’s Sexual Health Essay
well as men to make use of condoms through sexual intercourse, both for those living with HIV and those who may be in a discordant couple or when one or both partners are engaged in sexual activity with others who may be at risk. Most methods of contraception can be used irrespective of HIV status (Gruskin et al. 2007).
Children and Young People in Wirral are the most significant asset. We should help them all raise into positive and victorious adults. They can do this for themselves but we will help them by ensuring they receive information and services when they are needed and in a way they can best make use of them. We are committed to removing barriers that prevent us from providing the services that children and young people tell us they need Wirral Health and Well Being Charter for Wirral Children and Young People (2008) The aim of the policy is to enable any member of staff to assess and respond appropriately to young people’s needs with regards to sexual health, within their professional boundaries, and from an informed perspective.Women’s Sexual Health Essay
To conclude, sexual health promotion in teenagers is a very central matter. Social cultural and political factors can hold back effective communication between health professionals and young people and can put off young people from seeking professionals help regarding sexual health issues. Sexual health promotion will reach the young people at a level that has considerable meaning to achieve change in their sexual practice and to help them to reach their most favourable sexual health and sexual identity. Sexual health promotion in teenagers will assist to reduce the rate of sexually transmitted infections, HIVs, teenage pregnancies and sexual violence. Women’s Sexual Health Essay
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