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The symptoms of MODY Type 2 are similar to that of a diabetic individual with frequent urination, elevated thirst, and possible weight loss. There are no physical abnormalities caused by this disease as it mostly affects the pancreas and the regulation of glucose. Excess high blood glucose over an extended period of time may lead to kidney damage that may result in an amputation (Froguel et al. 1992). Obesity may lead to an earlier onset of the disease. MODY Type 2 has a mutation in which the Glucokinase, GCK, enzyme is inactivated (Inoue et al. 2004) This mutation is linked to a single base pair mutation of GCK enzyme which is an enzyme that phosphorylates

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Autism Spectrum Disorder is a brain-based developmental disorder that involves multiple abnormal perceptual, cognitive, linguistic and social behaviors. With rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder rising, it is important that we improve our understanding of the causes of the disorder and become more culturally aware and sensitive to screening for the disorder in order to find effective interventions. Understanding of the current clinical picture, etiology and treatment of ASD will be discussed. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay
Autism was a label coined in the early 20th century from the Greek word autos meaning “self” as it was used to refer to individuals who would “withdrawal from the fabric of social life into the self” (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp.210). Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder typically occur before the age of three and include extreme unresponsiveness to other people, severe communication deficits, and highly rigid and repetitive behaviors, interests and activities (Comer, 2014). It is important to note that ASD includes many symptoms of varied severity. Daniel P. Hallahan, James M. Kauffman and Paige C. Pullen point out that “ the term spectrum emphasizes that the disabilities associated with ASD fall on a continuum from relatively mild to severe” (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp. 211). According to the Diagnostic and Statistaical Manual of Mental Disorders, the symptoms for ASD are wide ranging and are divided into two general domains: “social communication impairment” and “repetitive/restricited behaviors” (Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen, 2015, pp. 211). Children who fall towards the mild end of the spectrum are called “high functioning

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects a person’s ability to communicate, interact and behave appropriately with others in social situations. Approximately 1 in 68 children in the United States has autism, and the condition is about five times more common in boys than in girls, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Autism is characterized by impairments in social skills, communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior such as hand flapping and an insistence on sameness. Many children also have unusual sensory responses, and may shy away from bright lights or may not notice if their clothes are rough and twisted.

Earlier versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the American Psychiatric Association’s guide for diagnosis, listed autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and childhood disintegrative disorder as separate diagnoses. In the latest edition of the DSM, however, experts combined these conditions into one group called autism spectrum disorder because they all appear to be varying degrees of the same disorder, the association reported.

Despite controversy around the subject, there is no evidence that links vaccination of a child with the development of autism, according to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Symptoms of autism
No two people with autism are alike, but many parents notice signs of the disorder when their child does not meet certain developmental milestones, typically between 18 months and 3 years of age. For instance, the child may have problems with eye contact, responding to his or her name or engaging in imaginative play.

Caregivers may also notice that their child does not appear to enjoy engaging and interacting with others, said Mayada Elsabbagh, an assistant professor in psychiatry at McGill University in Quebec, Canada.

However, mild forms of the disorder may not become apparent until the child is older, and some people are not diagnosed until adulthood.

“They may not be detectible until the child starts reaching school age and starts having specific types of challenges that highlight some of the social and communication problems that they have,” Elsabbagh told Live Science. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Diagnosis of autism
The diagnostic process is different for every person with autism. In some cases, pediatricians may use an autism screen, often a short yes-or-no survey that looks for signs of autism, to see whether a child may be at risk for the disorder. If the child screens positive, the family may receive a referral to a specialist for a diagnostic evaluation.

When diagnosing autism, specialists rely on both direct observational information and parent report data about the child’s behavior, said Elsabbagh, who encouraged parents to keep a detailed developmental records of their children’s growth.

“For older children, some clinicians will seek input from the child’s school, peers — how they interact in the settings outside their home,” she said. “What they’re trying to do is compile and put together these different sources of information and integrate them to figure out if this a child with autism or, alternatively, does this child have a general developmental delay that is not specific to autism?” Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

A thorough team of clinicians may also diagnose additional disorders that often accompany autism, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability, epilepsy and depression, she added.

People with certain genetic disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex and Angelman syndrome, also tend to have autism, experts say.

Treatment of autism
There is no cure for autism spectrum disorders. However, there are behavioral and educational therapies that may help reduce symptoms. And early diagnosis is key to connecting children with autism to treatment, Elsabbagh said.

One of the most frequently used therapies, Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA), for instance, uses rewards to encourage people with autism to increase useful behavior and decrease impairing actions. Parent-mediated interventions are also an effective therapy that teaches the caregivers how to help their children in a natural environment, such as the home. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

For instance, children with autism saw improvements in language and behavior after enrolling in the Early Start Denver Model, a two-year intervention that uses ABA and other therapies in a classroom setting, reported a 2010 study in Pediatrics.

“In reality, behavioral approaches are best because we know that changing the environment around the child and interacting with the child in different ways does change biological processes [in the brain],” Elsabbagh said. “It does have an impact on shaping brain development in a way that would be supportive and helpful for their independence.”

Medications do not treat the core symptoms of autism, such as problems with communication, but can reduce symptoms such as irritability. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two drugs for autism — risperidone and aripiprazole — which treat aggression, irritability and mood swings.

However, the long-term effects of these medications are unknown, and often children with autism take multiple drugs to treat other problems such as hyperactivity or depression, experts find. About 65 percent of children with autism have a prescription for a psychotropic medication, a drug that can cross the blood-brain barrier, a 2013 study in the journal Pediatrics reported. Furthermore, 35 percent of the children in the study received prescriptions for two types of these drugs, and 15 percent had three or more prescriptions, the study found. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

“Drug therapies are by no means a substitute for the behavioral approaches,” Elsabbagh said. “They tend to be viewed as a complementary approach that overall fits within the child’s treatment plan, but are a not a child’s substitute for what therapies can do.”

What’s more, the market is inundated with alternative treatments and diets that are not clinically proven to help people with autism. “Sometimes the parents think these are substitutes and they choose not to put their children in behavioral treatments,” Elsabbagh said. “And that takes away every chance the child could have to have a more validated option.”

Adults with autism

Most autism research focuses on children, but more researchers are beginning to examine how the disorder affects the lives of adults. Relative to the general population, fewer adults with autism enroll in higher education, find a job or transition to independent living, research shows.

About one-third of young adults with autism attend college within eight years of leaving high school, said Anne Roux, senior research coordinator at the Life Course Outcomes research program at the A.J. Drexel Autism Institute at Drexel University in Philadelphia. Her team used data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a nationwide database that surveys students in special education programs. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

About half of those with autism found a paying job within the first eight years outside of high school, she said. In comparison, 98 percent of typical people and 91 percent of people with disabilities in general find paying work in that time frame.

“The autism number is quite a bit lower than that, and that’s the concern,” Roux said. “You can see that they struggle a lot early on.” About half are not connected either to school or to work within two years of leaving high school.

Furthermore, about 80 percent of young adults with autism continue to live with their parents after high school, which is more than the general population and adults with disabilities in general, Roux said.

Researchers plan to study how school and community programs can prepare students and young adults with autism with life skills that will help them gain independence as they age, she said.

Treatment and Intervention Services for Autism Spectrum Disorder
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Currently, no treatment has been shown to cure ASD, but several interventions have been developed and studied for use with young children. These interventions may reduce symptoms, improve cognitive ability and daily living skills, and maximize the ability of the child to function and participate in the community [1-6]. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

The differences in how ASD affects each person means that people with ASD have unique strengths and challenges in social communication, behavior, and cognitive ability. Therefore, treatment plans are usually multidisciplinary, may involve parent-mediated interventions, and target the child’s individual needs.

Behavioral intervention strategies have focused on social communication skill development—particularly at young ages when the child would naturally be gaining these skills—and reduction of restricted interests and repetitive and challenging behaviors. For some children, occupational and speech therapy may be helpful, as could social skills training and medication in older children. The best treatment or intervention can vary depending on an individual’s age, strengths, challenges, and differences [7].

It is also important to remember that children with ASD can get sick or injured just like children without ASD. Regular medical and dental exams should be part of a child’s treatment plan. Often it is hard to tell if a child’s behavior is related to the ASD or is caused by a separate health condition. For instance, head banging could be a symptom of ASD, or it could be a sign the child is having headaches or earaches. In those cases, a thorough physical examination is needed. Monitoring healthy development means not only paying attention to symptoms related to ASD, but also to the child’s physical and mental health. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Not much is known about the best interventions for older children and adults with ASD. There has been some research on social skills groups for older children, but there is not enough evidence to show that these are effective [8]. Additional research is needed to evaluate interventions designed to improve outcomes in adulthood. In addition, services are important to help individuals with ASD complete their education or job training, find employment, secure housing and transportation, take care of their health, improve daily functioning, and participate as fully as possible in their communities [9].

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Types of Treatments
There are many types of treatments available. These include applied behavior analysis, social skills training, occupational therapy, physical therapy, sensory integration therapy, and the use of assistive technology.

The types of treatments generally can be broken down into the following categories:

Behavior and Communication Approaches
Dietary Approaches
Medication
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Behavior and Communication Approaches
According to reports by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Research Council, behavior and communication approaches that help children with ASD are those that provide structure, direction, and organization for the child in addition to family participation [10].

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
A notable treatment approach for people with ASD is called applied behavior analysis (ABA). ABA has become widely accepted among healthcare professionals and used in many schools and treatment clinics. ABA encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors to improve a variety of skills. The child’s progress is tracked and measured. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

There are different types of ABA. Here are some examples:

Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts, and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors. Incorrect answers are ignored.
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI)
This is a type of ABA for very young children with ASD, usually younger than 5 and often younger than 3. EIBI uses a highly structured teaching approach to build positive behaviors (such as social communication) and reduce unwanted behaviors (such as tantrums, aggression, and self-injury). EIBI takes place in a one-on-one adult-to-child environment under the supervision of a trained professional.
Early Start Denver Model (ESDM)
This is a type of ABA for children with ASD between the ages of 12-48 months. Through ESDM, parents and therapists use play and joint activities to help children advance their social, language, and cognitive skills.

Pivotal Response Training (PRT)
PRT aims to increase a child’s motivation to learn, monitor their own behavior, and initiate communication with others. Positive changes in these behaviors are believed to have widespread effects on other behaviors.
Verbal Behavior Intervention (VBI)
VBI is a type of ABA that focuses on teaching verbal skills.
There are other therapies that can be part of a complete treatment program for a child with ASD: Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Assistive Technology
Assistive technology, including devices such as communication boards and electronic tablets, can help people with ASD communicate and interact with others. For example, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) uses picture symbols to teach communication skills. The person is taught to use picture symbols to ask and answer questions and have a conversation. Other individuals may use a tablet as a speech-generating or communication device.

Developmental, Individual Differences, Relationship-Based Approach (also called “Floortime”)
Floortime focuses on emotional and relational development (feelings and relationships with caregivers). It also focuses on how the child deals with sights, sounds, and smells.

Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-handicapped CHildren (TEACCH)external icon
TEACCH uses visual cues to teach skills. For example, picture cards can help teach a child how to get dressed by breaking information down into small steps.

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Occupational Therapy
Occupational therapy teaches skills that help the person live as independently as possible. Skills may include dressing, eating, bathing, and relating to people. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Social Skills Training
Social skills training teaches children the skills they need to interact with others, including conversation and problem-solving skills.

Speech Therapy
Speech therapy helps to improve the person’s communication skills. Some people are able to learn verbal communication skills. For others, using gestures or picture boards is more realistic.

Visit the Autism Speaksexternal icon, Autism Societyexternal icon, or National Center for Child Health and Human Developmentexternal icon website to read more about these therapies.

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Dietary Approaches
Some dietary treatments have been developed to address ASD symptoms. However, a 2017 systematic review of 19 randomized control trials found little evidence to support the use of dietary treatments for children with ASD [11].

Some biomedical interventions call for changes in diet. Such changes can include removing certain foods from a child’s diet and using vitamin or mineral supplements. Dietary treatments are based on the idea that food allergies or lack of vitamins and minerals cause symptoms of ASD. Some parents feel that dietary changes make a difference in how their child acts or feels.

If you are thinking about changing your child’s diet, talk to the doctor first or with a registered dietitian to be sure your child’s diet includes the necessary vitamins and minerals for their growth and development. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

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Medication
There are no medications that can cure ASD or treat the core symptoms. However, there are medications that can help some people with ASD function better. For example, medication might help manage high energy levels, inability to focus, anxiety and depression, behavioral reactivity, self-injury, or seizures.

Medications might not affect all children in the same way. It is important to work with a healthcare professional who has experience in treating children with ASD. Parents and healthcare professionals must closely monitor a child’s progress and reactions while he or she is taking a medication to be sure that any negative side effects of the treatment do not outweigh the benefits.

To learn more about medication and ASD, please visit the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s websiteexternal icon. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments
To relieve the symptoms of ASD, some parents and healthcare professionals use treatments that are outside of what is typically recommended by pediatricians. These treatments are known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. CAM treatments refer to products or services that are used in addition to or instead of traditional medicine. They might include special diets, dietary supplementsexternal icon, chelation (a treatment to remove heavy metals such as lead from the body), biologicals (for example, secretin), or mind-body medicine [12].

Many of these treatments have not been studied for effectiveness; moreover, a review of studies on chelation found some evidence of harm and no evidence to indicate it is effective in treating children with ASD [13]. Current research shows that as many as one-third of parents of children with ASD may have tried CAM treatments, and up to 10% may be using a potentially dangerous treatment [14-17]. Before starting such a treatment, talk to your child’s doctor. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

To learn more about CAM therapies for ASD, go to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine’s Autismexternal icon webpage. The FDA has information about potentially dangerous treatments hereexternal icon.

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Additional Treatment Resources
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disordersexternal icon has a website to help individuals with ASD who have communication challenges.

The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Researchexternal icon has resources to help caregivers and health professionals with the oral healthcare needs of individuals with ASD.

Clinical Trials.Govexternal icon lists federally funded clinical trials that are looking for participants. If you or someone you know would like to take part in an autism study, go to the website and search “autism.”

The Autism Treatment Networkexternal icon (ATN) seeks to create standards of medical treatment that will be made broadly available to physicians, researchers, parents, policymakers, and others who want to improve the care of individuals with autism. ATN is also developing a shared national medical database to record the results of treatments and studies at any of their five established regional treatment centers. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Autism spectrum disorder has become the most common neurological and developmental disorder diagnosed in children today. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) estimate that 1 out of every 88 American children have been properly diagnosed. There is no known cure for autism, and the inconsistencies of the symptoms of autism in each case make it difficult to target a particular set of effective treatments. However some behavior management therapies, specifically physical therapy, may help to significantly control the unwanted symptoms in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Symptoms.

Autism Spectrum Disorder – Causes, Reasons and Treatment
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as a developmental disability that affects people’s personalities based on how they interact with the world (Magalhaes and Almeida, 2010). However, Sparks and Dager (2012, p. 187) defines ASD as “a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs one’s ability to communicate and interact with others.” Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Various ASD definitions are known to be universal since they recognise it as a spectral condition (Baird et al., 2016). In his study, Umekage (2011, p. 25), indicates that ASD is a hidden disability coupled with foetal brain damage as well as impairment of neural vitro development. Characterised by interests, activities and repetitive behaviours, ASD is so complex that it varies from one case to another (Akanksha et al., 2011).

Despite various studies on the reasons, causes and treatment of ASD, there are relatively unknown rationale for its causes. Chandler and Baird (2015, p. 923) posits that people with ASD need different kinds of support since their ways of development and learning differ from every individual. The aim of this paper is to discuss the causes, reasons and treatment of ASD.

Causes of ASD
Although there are undetermined causes of ASD, scientists as well as medical practitioners believe that an amalgamation of genetic and environmental factors are the two major causes of ASD (Fitzgerald and Geschwind, 2013). To start with, the cause of ASD via genetic factors is not a simple process, but a complex of progression that involve multiple genes. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Causes of ASD – Gentics
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder

As indicated by Schechtman (2014, p.86) study, the rate of ASD development in identical twins as well as monozygotic is higher than rates in dizygotic and same-sex fraternal twins. This indicates that fraternal twins only share some genes, while identical twins have equal genes and therefore genes contributes much to autism. More so, Brothers as well as sisters of children with autism have high level of autism (Fitzgerald and Geschwind, 2013). From another perspective, Smith and John (2011, p. 803) in their research attributed that siblings share certain problems such as language as well as learning difficulties if one of the sibling has autism. However, it is not clear if autism is inherited as well as more general predisposition difficulties.

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Causes of ASD – Environmental Factors
Secondly, ASD can be caused by environmental factors. Environmental toxins such as mercury and thimerosoal vaccines cause autism stems (Mercer et al., 2016). More so, congenital rubella infection is one of the environmental factors that cause ASD. However, Goin-Kochel and Myers (2015, p. 172) disputes that there is any clarity environmental factors causing ASD and therefore more studies needs to be done. Rich and Isager (2012, p. 410) adds “some of the evidence proposed for environmental factors is based on case reports, which are often difficult to interpret.” Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Reasons for ASD
ASD as mentioned earlier, ASD can be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors, however, we have reasons ASD occurs. First, Autism exists when a single gene known as fragile X syndrome (FXS) exists in the blood (Hessl and Schneider, 2013). FXS is defined as a syndrome that is coupled with autism as well as intellectual disability (Visootsak and Picker, 2015). As per Wehner and Hagerman (2011, p. 415), “Whereas ASD is a behavioural diagnosis, FXS is a medical, or more accurately, a genetic diagnosis and therefore when associated with FXS, ASD is caused by the genetic change or mutation in the Fragile X gene.”

This alters normal blood circulation, hence ASD. Secondly, individuals are affected by ASD when tuberous sclerosis, chromosome 15q and other genetic conditions subsist (Hessl and Schneider, 2013).

ASD Treatment – Medications
Core symptoms associated with ASD have no medication and cure, but we have medications that help to manage high energy levels of ASD, seizures, inability to focus as well as depression symptoms (Burrell and Borrego, 2012). Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

The first treatment method utilised during ASD is the early intervention service. This method improves individual’s development, especially children with ASD (Buitelaar and Wong, 2014). These services, such as vitamin therapy, auditory training, facilitated communication and physical therapy improve children talk, interaction and walk.

Early intervention services attribute the theory of mind as an explanatory ASD theory that reflects on the symptom criteria (A) of the DSM-5. As per Gallese and Goldman (2012, p. 496), the theory of mind was created by Uta Frith, Alan Leslie and Simon Baron-Cohen in 1985 to explain communication persistence as well as social interaction for people with ASD.

ASD Treatment – Behaviours and Communication
The second method used for ASD treatment is the behaviours and communication approaches. This method involves direct, organised and structural ways for people with ASD to participate in a given paediatric events and medication. As per Burrell and Borrego (2012, p. 424), applied behaviour analysis (ABA) is utilised as a treatment of ASD via behaviour and communication approach to encourage positive and discourage negative behaviours hence improving various skills needed during ASD treatment. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

This is in relation to the theory of executive dysfunction which states, “Executive functions (EF) are a set of cognitive skills that are put into practice through autonomous activities.” Most of these EF skills are utilised by ASD patients to boost their flexibility, organisation, objectives and goals, anticipation as well as to be able to control their impulses (Buitelaar and Wong, 2014). Thirdly, ASD can be treated through dietary approaches.

Change in diet, such as using certain foods, mineral supplements and vitamin helps to treat certain ASD effects. However, Talalay and Zimmerman (2014) posit that although dietary approach is considered as one of the ASD treatment, there is no scientific support and recommendation.

Finally, ASD can be treated using complementary and alternative treatments. Treatments associated with complementary and alternative approaches include chelation, biological such as secretin, special diets and body-based systems (Burrell and Borrego, 2012). Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

Conclusion
In conclusion, the aim of this paper was to discuss the causes, reasons and treatment of the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Being a hidden disability coupled with foetal brain damage as well as impairment of neural vitro development, ASD has varied and complex behaviours hence there is unknown treatment for core symptoms.

Generally, ASD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors such as genes inheritance and environmental toxins respectively. Some of the treatments for ASD as discussed included the used of the early intervention services, the behaviours and communication approaches, dietary approaches and complementary and alternative treatments. Characterised by interests, activities and repetitive behaviours, ASD is so complex that it varies from one case to another and therefore its treatments depends on an individual case. Treatments on Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

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