This form of aggression has also been termed predatory, instrumental, or proactive. Premeditated aggression is not invariably accompanied by autonomic arousal and is planned with clear goals in mind (Schwarzbold et, al. 2008).
Although Impulsive aggression is known to be one of the most common consequences of TBI, there are many other factors associated with human aggression. Understanding the factors that contribute to this may provide important clues for the prevention and treatment of impulsive aggression after TBI, thus improving the rehabilitation potential in the crucial early post-TBI period. With this in mind, the paper examines the neurobiological, neuropsychological and psychosocial contributors of impulsive aggression after brain injury.Traumatic Brain Injury Essay
Aggression after TBI is associated with multiple neurobiological neuropsychological and psychosocial factors. In the search for a neurobiological substrate of aggressive behavior, the frontal cortex has been a primary target since the case report of Phineas Gage. Many authors reported frontal lobe damage that appeared to be linked to aggressive behavior. Such cases typically involved lesions of the prefrontal, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. Blair (2003) mentioned that this aggression is almost exclusively reactive (impulsive) compared with the more instrumental, goal-directed aggression shown
by individuals with ‘‘developmental’’ aggression (Weber et, al., 2008).
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), or intracranial injury, is a medical diagnosis which refers to closed or penetrative damage to the brain that is caused by an external source. Every year, TBIs affect approximately 150-250 people in a population of 100,000 (León-Carrión, Domínguez-Morales, Martín, & Murillo-Cabezas, 2005). The leading causes of TBI are traffic accidents, work injuries, sports injuries, and extreme violence (León-Carrión et al., 2005). TBI is most often fatal when the cause is an injury due to the use of firearms, a traffic accident, or a long fall (León-Carrión et al., 2005). However, fatality rates and rates of occurrence differ in various countries due to…show more content…Traumatic Brain Injury Essay
Patients who suffer from a mild TBI often require little rehabilitation and function normally over the course of a week or so (León-Carrión et al., 2005). Patients with a moderate TBI often suffer psychological and physical stressors, but they have an 80% chance of being high-functioning after a certain amount of time (León-Carrión et al., 2005). However, patients with moderate to severe TBI often suffer long-term physical
and cognitive problems as a result of their injury. The disabilities that result from moderate to severe TBI differ depending on the area of injury, but they may include difficulties in speech, coordination, bilateral function, memory, complex thinking, and other areas (Murrey, 2006). Emotional and social areas are also affected by TBI due to changes in familial roles, lowered self-esteem, and hopelessness brought on by the injury (Murrey, 2006). Because of this, suicide rates in these patients are remarkably high, with 33% of patients at risk (León-Carriòn et al., 2005). Recovery in TBI patients may occur spontaneously throughout the two years following the trauma (León-Carrión et al., 2005). Beyond this point, remaining disabilities are usually permanent (León-Carrión et al., 2005). Implications for Music Therapy Because both TBI and music therapy have such broad definitions, music therapy has the capability to affect patients in several ways. In the case of a mild TBI, music therapy may not be necessary.Traumatic Brain Injury Essay