The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

Each year approximately 10 million babies do not breathe immediately at birth, of which about 6 million require basic neonatal resuscitation. The major burden is in low-income settings, where health system capacity to provide neonatal resuscitation is inadequate. Many of these babies die because their birth attendant or caregiver did not know a simple technique called neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal resuscitation is important because it is a technique that can and will save a baby’s life. Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of infant mortality, cerebral palsy and mental disabilities worldwide. The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

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After five years, that goal has been reached, and more than 100,000 medical professionals from more than 20 provinces have been trained. In studies conducted by the China Ministry of Health, birth asphyxia mortality declined by 53 percent in 360 hospitals surveyed. (AAP.ORG) The future of the program is other countries being introduced to neonatal resuscitation. If the program worked for china than whose to say, it would not work for other countries. I wanted to research and find what other countries have implemented neonatal resuscitation since China. There is a similar program in Bangladesh. Before the program was implemented, the traditional way to resuscitate was to hold the baby upside down, slap the bottom or blow in the baby’s face. The only suctioning was of the mouth and nose. The main barriers to effective resuscitation are lack of competent staff and lack of simple equipment. Aga Khan University with UNICEF launched a program to improve resuscitation skills of Physicians, Nurses, and Midwives. I hope that all countries are able to implement a neonatal resuscitation program in the hospitals but also go out into the communities and share the technique with those that give birth at home. It is known that many women do not go to medical facilities to give birth. The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

The significance of infant mortality as an important indicator of a nation’s health status and well-being has been well documented in social and biomedical research. Globally, the infant mortality rate decreased from 6300 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 3500 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2012 [1]. Correspondingly, the infant mortality rate of the United States (US) declined from approximately 10,000 infant deaths per 100,000 live births in 1900, to 689 infant deaths per 100,000 live births in 2000 [2]. However, the US rate is still largely above those of most other developed countries, which has attracted attention among researchers and public policy makers.The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

Infant mortality is associated with a variety of factors such as maternal health, socioeconomic conditions, and public health practices. The high US infant mortality has some association with and may be attributable in large part to disparities in socioeconomic status which in turn are associated with race and ethnicity. Considerable differences in socioeconomic status and resulting financial disempowerment may adversely affect food security and nutrition, education, and health care in local and regional communities. Thus, the long-term pattern of mortality in the US has shown inconsistency for socioeconomic and demographic subgroups of the population as well as causes of infant death. Clearly, divisive social issues have led the Southeastern states to having the most serious poverty problems in the country (for this study, the Southeastern states include: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana). For instance, Mississippi has the highest poverty rate in the US according to the American Community Survey, showing 17.40% of families living below the poverty level in 2011 [3], compared to 11.7% for the entire country. The Southeastern states’ average infant mortality rate has been approximately 10 deaths per 1000 live births in recent years. According to the Mississippi State Department of Health [4], and Alabama Department of Public Health [5], 8.8 and 8.9 babies per 1000 born in 2012 died before their first birthday, respectively. This issue makes the infant mortality rate in Mississippi more comparable to those of developing countries such as Chile (8.0 per 1000 live births), Lebanon (8.0 per 1000 live births), and Oman (10 per 1000 live births) than that of the US (6.0 per 1000 live births), according to latest estimates (2012) from the World Health Organization (WHO) [6]. Coincidently, teenage pregnancy is also more prevalent in the Southeast than in most other parts of the country, according to the latest Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data. For instance, Mississippi ranked the highest for teen birth rate in 2010, with 55 out of 1000 women compared to a national average of 34.2 [7].The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

A comprehensive investigation and analysis of past trends of infant mortality is not only critical in developing effective public healthcare programs and policies, but also vital for future health planning. However, no systematic effort has yet been established to bring together a thorough assessment of recent courses and differentials in the Southeastern states’ infant mortality in relation to those important sociodemographic variables. Hence, the purpose of this paper: to analyze long term trends and differentials in infant mortality in five southeastern states from 2005 to 2009 by location, cause of death, mother’s characteristics, birth characteristics, and infant’s characteristics in the following states Alabama (AL), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Louisiana (LA), and Mississippi (MS). These states were selected based on the geographical location and their resembling socioeconomic status, and then these states were compared with the US average.The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

Herein I briefly overview the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) within the United States. Initially, I discuss specific causes of infant death and then, contributing factors which put babies at risk. Next, the distribution of various IMR is surveyed on a state to state basis. States possessing the ten highest infant mortality rates are discussed, including possible reasons for higher IMR. In addition, those states with the ten lowest IMR are mentioned. In conclusion, I consider preventative measures for minimizing the number of babies that die each year. The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay
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McKenzie and Pinger define infant mortality as death prior to 1 year of age. It is expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. Leading causes of infant mortality are: congenital malformation, preterm/low birth weight, complications during pregnancy and accidents. In the last 100 years there have been decreases in infant mortality due to economic growth, sanitation improvement, developed medical care and enhanced nutrition. (McKenzie & Pinger, 2017). Infant mortality rates vary amid ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Infant mortality rates are based on the 1983 and 1984 birth and infant-death files, mother’s race and Hispanic origin. Asians have a lower rate of infant mortality than whites but the rates vary…show more content…
The most common way of calculating infant mortality rates are dividing the number of infant deaths in a year by the number of live births in that year. Infant mortality rates related to race are only valid when the coding of the race on the birth and death certificate are comparable. On the other hand, results from the 1983 and 1984 National Linked Birth-Death Files reveal that the coding for races other than black or white is not proportionate. The methods used in this article were taking infant mortality rates from linked birth-death files and calculating them by using the race and Hispanic origin of the mother documented on the birth certificate. There were two reasons why the race of the child wasn’t used. First, the race of the child is designated in an arbitrary manner depending on the mother and fathers race. The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay The example they give in the article is, if the mother of the child is black and the father is white then the child’s race is coded as the race of the parent who isn’t black. Secondly, the child’s race wasn’t used is the race of the father is unrecognized 20% of birth certificates as to the 1% for which the mothers race is unknown. Data on Hispanic origin were collected and documented in 23 states in the United States in 1983 and 1984. Data on White, Black, American Indian, Asian (Chinese, Japanese, Filipino), Hispanic origin (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American) The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

Introduction

Every eight seconds a baby is born in the United Sates (U.S.), and within one hour…show more content…
Upon graduation from high school, students should master eighteen basic principles. This paper provides an opportunity for students to know and understand three of these guidelines. First, students will know how to use maps and graphical tools to acquire, process, and report information (number one of the National Standards). Hot links connect data presented throughout the text to pie graphs, bar graphs, charts, tables, and a map located at appropriate web sites. Second, the students will know and understand that people define regions and will be able to use them to interpret the world’s (or the United States) changing complexity (number five of the National Standards). For various reasons infant mortality rate within the United States is higher among regions in which certain populations live. Knowledge concerning the distribution of these populations facilitates the students’ understanding of IMR distribution. Third, the student will know and understand that culture and experience influence people’s perceptions of places and experiences (number six of the National Standards). People tend to form opinions about other people and places based on their own background and biases. Students must realize and contend with factors that influence their perception, thus avoiding “the dangers of egocentric and ethnocentric stereotyping,…” and engage in “…accurate and sensitive analysis of people, places The Leading Cause Of Infant Mortality Essay

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