The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(h·kg). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food).[1] In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining “standard” rates of metabolism for many mammals  The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

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Countries throughout the world are at various stages of nutritional transition and, increasingly, they are documenting that food insecurity and under-nutrition exist side by side with problems of over-nutrition, obesity and chronic diseases [1]. Different diseases of adults are considered to have a close relationship with malnutrition and incorrect or improper nutrition in childhood. The association between childhood diet and being underweight or overweight as children or even as adults has been shown in numerous studies [2,3,4]. Global evidence indicates increase of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other chronic non-communicable diseases, especially in developing and transitional countries. This evidence also indicates that disease processes begin early in life, and it is expected that the epidemic will continue to increase due to a lifetime of exposure to poor diet and the influence of different factors [5, 6].The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

Proper nutrition in childhood is considered to play a crucial role in the physical, mental, and emotional development of children through to their later adult age. Children are therefore considered the priority population for intervention strategies [7]. Nutritional assessment in children is needed to determine their nutritional status and problems in their food regimes and if identified, to treat such problems in order to prevent them from becoming larger and threatening to children’s health. Therefore, many studies are taking place, for example, in preschool institutions and kindergartens.

Anthropometry is a practical and immediately applicable technique for assessing children’s development patterns. Anthropometric indicators can be used as a screening device to identify individuals at risk of under-nutrition or over-nutrition, followed by a more elaborate investigation using other techniques [8]. Complementary to this assessment the BMI (body mass index) z-scores has been recommended as the most appropriate single indicator of overweight status and obesity in children and adolescents outside of research settings [9,10,11].The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

Kosovo, as the youngest country in accession discussion with the EU, is among a few countries without any National Nutrition Strategy or Nutrition Education Program. According to the 2009 Kosovo education statistics, the number of preschool establishments (kindergartens) was 40 with a total of 5091 children enrolled, divided into two groups (a) toddlers aged 1–3 years and (b) preschoolers aged 4–6 years [12]. The percentage of preschool-aged children attending kindergartens in Kosovo is very low (less than 10%). There is a high demand by families to send their children to kindergartens, but a lack of kindergartens and budget limitations prevent many children from attending such preschool institutions.The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

Based on literature exploration, the statistics and investigation on nutrition and health characteristics of the country seem to be scarce, and there is very limited data on malnutrition and overweight preschool children in Kosovo. According to the survey conducted by UNICEF in July 1999 [13], the acute malnutrition was detected in 3.1% of the children from 0–5 years (including 1% severe) and chronic malnutrition was present in 10.7% of the children (including 3% severe). In 2001, the United Nations Children’s Fund [14], in collaboration with the Institute for Public Health of Kosovo, promoted a survey on the health and nutrition of women and children. Low height-for-age was found in 10% of the children aged 6–59 months while the prevalence of low weight-for-height was 4%.

The main objective of this study is to provide preliminary data on nutritional status in preschool children attending public and private kindergartens in Kosovo. Since Kosovo did not yet develop its own national standards for nutritional guidelines and nutritional assessment, the growth of preschool children was examined to determine whether and how the anthropometric indicators of selected samples differ from actual WHO standards and references, which are mainly used for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of preschool children. It is expected that the growth of preschool children in Kosovo is not in line with international standards and references for weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and BMI-for-age.The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

Methods
This cross-sectional study covered four public and one private kindergarten, randomly selected from different regions of Kosovo (Prishtinë; Ferizaj; Kamenicë and Obiliq). The study population included 486 children and the distribution of the study subjects by age and sex is presented in Table 1. Kindergartens in Kosovo are frequented by children of families with different economic, social, and cultural levels.

Introduction
mericans aspire to live in a society where children of humble origins who work hard
can rise to middle-class status. Yet many children who are born into poverty struggle
to make ends meet as adults, failing to earn enough to achieve middle-class status.
Nearly two out of three children born into the bottom fifth of the income distribution
remain in the bottom two-fifths of the income distribution as adults (Isaacs, Sawhill and
Haskins, 2009). Often, lack of economic success can be traced back to failure to complete
college or even high school, which in turn stems from academic and behavioral struggles
during grade school. In fact, there is a large health and skills gap between poor children and
their more affluent peers even before they enter school.
Poor children start school at a disadvantage. Their health, behaviors, and skills make them
less prepared for kindergarten than children growing up under better economic conditions.
Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are school ready at age five, under a summary
measure that encompasses early math and reading skills, learning-related and problem
behaviors, and overall physical health. Children born to parents with moderate or higher
incomes are much more likely to enter school ready to learn; three-fourths (75 percent) of
these children are ready for school at age five. In other words, there is a 27 percentage point
gap in school readiness between poor children and those from moderate or higher income
families.The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
Kindergarten teachers find it easier to teach children if they have pre-academic skills, such
as recognizing letters and numbers, and if they can sit still, follow directions, and pay
attention. Children who are aggressive, have temper tantrums or exhibit other problem
behaviors, as well as children in poor health, pose challenges to kindergarten teachers
struggling to impart basic skills in a classroom setting.
School readiness has effects beyond the first few months of kindergarten; children with
higher levels of school readiness at age five are generally more successful in grade school, are
less likely to drop out of high school, and earn more as adults, even after adjusting for
differences in family background (Duncan et al., 2007, Duncan et al., 2010). Entering school
ready to learn can improve one’s chances of reaching middle class status by age 40 by about
8 percentage points, according to a recent analysis that uses linked data sets to track success
from birth to age 40 (Winship, Sawhill and Gold, 2011).
With growing awareness of the importance of early years, federal and state governments
have expanded their investments in young children. State spending on public prekindergartens, for example, increased each year from 2000 to 2009. The federal Head Start
program has expanded to serve younger children, Congress enacted the new Maternal, Infant
and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program two years ago, and the most recent “Race to the
Top” competition included some funding for states’ systems of early childhood education.
Even so, early childhood programs receive much less funding than public education.
Moreover, early interventions are at risk for funding cuts, as federal and state budgets are
squeezed by rising spending on health and retirement costs and falling tax revenues. State
funding on public pre-kindergartens actually fell in 2010, the first cut after a decade of
expansion (Barnett et al., 2010). At the federal level, early education programs must compete
with many other programs annually for increasingly scarce federal dollars. In this fiscal
environment, it is important to understand the effects of expanding (or cutting) programs
addressing children’s school readiness.
This paper examines children’s readiness for school at age five, comparing poor children
to children from more affluent families. After an initial section documenting a sizable gap in
school readiness, the next two sections address two important questions. First, why are poor
children less ready to learn than children from more affluent families? Second, does a better
understanding of key explanatory factors suggest targets of opportunity, that is, points of
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possible intervention to improve the early academic skills and behaviors of low-income The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
children? Finally, the concluding section describes a simulation that compares the effects and
costs of three different interventions: preschool programs, smoking cessation programs, and
nurse home visiting programs.
I. Poor Children Are Less Ready for School at Age Five than Other Children
Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children compared to 75 percent of children from
moderate or high-income households are ready for school at age five, resulting in a 27
percentage point gap in school readiness, as shown in Figure 1. This comparison focuses on
the difference between children from households with income below 100 percent of poverty
($18,000 for a family of three or $23,000 for a family of four, in 2011 terms) and children from
households with income above 185 percent of poverty. This latter group spans a broad
spectrum of family income, from incomes just above 185 percent of poverty ($33,000 for a
family of three in 2011) to much higher levels of family income.
Children who are “near poor” (from households with income between 100 and 185 percent
of poverty) also enter kindergarten at a disadvantage, although faring better than poor
children: 59 percent of children with incomes just above the poverty line are ready for school
at age five. School readiness rises to 86 percent for children born into households with
income above $100,000, and falls to 42 percent for children who are persistently poor: not
just at birth, but also at ages two, four and five years (Isaacs and Magnuson, 2011).

The domains of child development and early learning are discussed in different terms and categorized in different ways in the various fields and disciplines that are involved in research, practice, and policy related to children from birth through age 8. To organize the discussion in this report, the committee elected to use the approach and overarching terms depicted in Figure 4-1. The committee does not intend to present this as a single best set of terms or a single best categorical organization. Indeed, it is essential to recognize that the domains shown in Figure 4-1 are not easily separable and that a case can be made for multiple different categorizations. For example, different disciplines and researchers have categorized different general cognitive processes under the categorical term “executive function.” General cognitive processes also relate to learning competencies such as persistence and engagement. Similarly, self-regulation has both cognitive and emotional dimensions. It is sometimes categorized as a part of executive function, as a part of socioemotional competence, or as a part of learning competencies. Attention and memory could be considered a part of general cognitive processes, as embedded within executive function, or linked to learning competencies related to persistence. Mental health is closely linked to socioemotional competence, but is also inseparable from health.The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

Interior design is an established industry in the United States with its profits well
known to be a good contribution to the national economic growth. Some effort has been
made by U.S. Design Council to make sure that the interior design of buildings promotes
good health and comfort. Questions have been raised about the safety of U.S. classrooms
meant for elementary-level children, specifically those under than 5 years of age. This
formed the basis of this research, which unraveled the separate interior design elements of
elementary classrooms and their effects on pupils’ learning and health. Data were collected
through secondary methods from various documentary materials that shed light on the
interior design of classrooms and their effects on pupils’ development and learning
capabilities. Data were then analyzed through an interpretive and comparative procedure of
key variables such as classroom threats and learning achievements.
The findings showed that pupils in U.S. school classrooms face mainly seven kinds of
classroom threats—thermal, chemical, mechanical, organic, electrical, physiological, and
emotional threats—in varying degrees depending on the students’ gender and location.
Generally, female pupils were found to be more greatly affected by thermal, emotional, and
physiological threats than were their male counterparts in academic achievement. That is
because, unlike females, male pupils tend to adapt quickly to classroom threats such as
feeling extremely hot, fatigued or dizzy. Additionally, it was found that all pupils face
multiple health challenges when exposed to the various above-mentioned threats in their
classrooms.
With many U.S. schools requiring the use of pesticides, and the environment having
been polluted through industrial processes, many children have been exposed to additional  The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
xi
chemical threats, leading to death due to diseases of the respiratory system, such as asthma
and pneumonia, as well as other ailments such as skin cancer, brain cancer and retarded
growth, to name just a few. It was recommended that schools, the state and parents work
together for a safe learning environment for children 3–5 years of age. The study also
recommended that interior designers should observe professional standards to reduce the
prevalence of mechanical, chemical, electrical, organic and thermal threats, which were also
some of the causes of emotional and physiological disturbance among pupils.
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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
This chapter provides background information about interior design in the world and
in the United States. It also provides the essence of the study analysis, the research aim and
objectives. In addition, the chapter describes the research questions, scope and purpose by
specifically looking into preliminary matters on safety issues of children 3–5 years of age in
school classrooms.The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
1.2 Study Background
1.2.1 Evolution of Interior Design
Interior design is as old as humankind is and can be traced back to the prehistoric
period when humans lived in caves and designed the caves using primitive forms of drawings
and paintings (Pile, 2005, p. 13). However, keen thought into interior design can be dated
back to the Ancient Egyptians during the Dark Ages, when they used animal skins, painted
vases, sculptures and murals to decorate their houses. Evidence of these decorations has been
found in the ancient tombs of great Egyptians leaders such a King Tutankhamen (Pile, 2005).
Pile (2005) asserted that there is great evidence of the existence of interior design from the
ancient Egyptian civilization, as most of the ancient interiors have remained intact over time
due to the availability of good quality stone from the Nile Valley, which the Egyptians used.
Examples of great Egyptian design include the great pyramids, which date back to around
2800 B.C., and whose interior passages give great evidence of ancient Egyptian conceptual
thinking and geometric planning in interior design (p. 25).
The ancient Egyptian interior designs were borrowed and adopted by the Roman and
Greek civilizations, who built upon the Egyptian designs to develop their own interior design
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decoration, art and accessories. Interior design, to the Romans and Greek, symbolized
comfort and beauty. Thus, the wealthy used interior design, art and accessories in their
homes to reflect their high status in society (Pile, 2005). However, this period of
ornamentation and splendor gave way to a period of austerity during which time there was
reduced use of ornamentation and colors in interior design. People tended to use simple
fabrics, muted colors and wall fabrics for their interior designs. This change was brought
about because of the constant Medieval European wars as well as the rise of the Christian
church (Pile, 2005).
After this period, during the 12th century, ornamentation and color were again brought
back into interior design. During this period, the Europeans used Gothic styles, such as
windows to capture the natural light, in the interior design of open spaces (Bernard, 1999).
During the 15th and the 16th centuries, the French Renaissance brought changes to the way
interior design was perceived. People started focusing on the beauty and art encompassing
interior design. In constructing buildings, architects and designers began including decorative
elements in their structures, for instance, inlaid woodwork, marble floors and furniture
designs using the finest woods, as well as paintings (Pile, 2005). By the mid-18th century, the
e-Rococo design style, which used decorative elements such as flower motifs, Asian
porcelain and elegantly designed furniture using tortoise shell and mother of pearl, was
adopted in Europe (Ulrich, 1990). Over the next 200-year period, various innovative designs
came into and went out of fashion.
By the 20th century, the rise of new household commodities and appliances presented
a new challenge to interior designers, who needed to plan spaces for functional and aesthetic
purposes as well as address safety issues (Bernard, 1999). Over the years, the field of interior
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design has developed into what it is today. Currently, designers have access to both synthetic
and nonsynthetic materials to use in design. Moreover, as modern designers continually
strive to create new design trends, they draw on the design influences of the past to ensure
effectiveness in meeting functionality and aesthetics as well as keeping safety purposes in
design.
1.2.2 Interior Design Today
Over the past decade, the world has been moving from a point where industrialization
was at center stage for development to the current point at which development is a recipe for
knowledge (Design Council, 2010). The economy of the world is now supported by
information that has changed several sectors, including the design industry. In the design The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
industry, design consultancy has been one of the most affected by the changes in the
economy to a knowledge-based economy.
Interior design is one type of design that has been undergoing changes due to
developments in knowledge. This is because of the concept of innovation encompassing the
generation and use of new technology, which has extended interior design into a knowledgebased or knowledge-driven sector of the economy (Abdazi, 2007). Interior design, as defined
by Pable (2009), is a profession that is multifaceted whereby solutions that are creative and
technical in nature are applied so that a good interior environment can be built. Some of the
basic features of the solutions applied include being functional, having the ability to display
life quality, having an attractive aesthetic appeal, and promoting the culture of its occupants.
The created interior design should be in response to the building and should be able to
coordinate with the type of roofing, social context, and even the physical location of the
building. Designs of professionally constructed buildings should adhere to the set legal and
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code requirements and, in addition, should encourage the principles of environmental
sustainability.
1.2.3 Safety and Interior Design
In terms of safety, interior design can be defined as a process that follows a
coordinated and systematic method encompassing the analysis of research and incorporation
of core information within an innovative process to ensure designs for indoor spaces of a
wide array of buildings that are functional, aesthetic and safe (Guerin, 1991). Thus, one of
the core factors determining effective interior design is how it ensures the safety of the
people occupying such spaces. Piotrowski and Rogers (2010) asserted that it is imperative
that interior designers understand how various safety issues relate to indoor space and air
quality. The style of design in spaces and materials used in design need to be specified in
such a manner that they promote a safe interior environment of a building.The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
Professional interior designers should enhance life through their designs. This implies
that designs should not only take into account issues concerning interior decoration
functionality but also should enhance the health and safety of people (Guerin, 1991). In order
to meet this objective, Guerin and Martin (2010) have provided a body of knowledge, as
defined by various interior design professional organizations, that needs to be taken into
account while undertaking interior design. Apart from factors such as ensuring that the
interior design meets the clients’ needs in terms of quality, cost, schedule and scope, other
core factors primarily highlighted are those concerning the health and safety issues of the
buildings being designed. For instance, one of the outlined tasks is the requirement to ensure
that design concepts and space plans used are aesthetically appropriate and functional, and
that they meet all the safety and health requirements in terms of sustainability issues,
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environmental issues, safety code as well as accessibility. These concepts and designs need
to adhere to fire codes as well as building regulation guidelines for interior spaces.
The various guidelines provide a body of knowledge for interior design, and the role
interior design plays in the safety, health and welfare of people ensures that interior designers
are able to see interior design as more than just creation of aesthetic value. From the
guidelines, it can be noted that, although interior design aims to adjust and blend the spaces
within the building location that will be used, it also ensures a safe environment for
occupants.
Various studies have indeed linked interior design to safety issues within buildings.The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
Guerin (1991) asserted that optimized work station design, building layouts, acoustical,
lighting as well as environmental design strongly play a key role in preventing accidents
from occurring. Optimized lighting design in this matter may include dimming circuits,
developing light levers and dealing with reflections and glares, all of which eliminate
eyestrain. Optimized safety and environmental conditions can include effective fire control
and air conditions, all of which reduce accidents and risk. Optimized acoustics may include
using certain ceiling, floor and wall materials that can minimize noise distractions, and an
optimized room layout may include certain spacing, as well as information displays that
minimize distractions (Guerin, 1991). All these design factors play an important role in the
health, well-being and safety of persons using the rooms in question as well as improve the
manner in which people are able to do their work. Bacon (2011) agreed with this viewpoint,
noting that interior design plays an important role in elevating the quality of life by
preventing all forms of harm. The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
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1.2.4 Interior Design in Classrooms
Various research studies have pointed to the need to consider design factors when
designing classrooms in elementary school, high school, and college environments. Hasell
(1996) noted that teaching can be difficult and that for students to attain focused learning it is
imperative that the learning environment be able to generate enthusiasm for the students, help
students adapt to learning styles as well as encourage student interactions. For this to be
possible, schools need to provide learning environments that are friendly, comfortable, and
encourage creativity. Analyzing the rules of interior decoration in educational institutions,
Keith (2011) asserted that classrooms need to emphasize the flexibility in interior decoration
in order to support project-based learning environments. In order to motivate children to be
creative in their school projects, the interior decoration needs to be fun and bright and include
lively colors, as each aspect of the learning environment supports student learning in
different ways and for different students. A recent report by Barrett, Zhang, Moffat and
Kobbacy (2013) found that classroom interior design could affect a student’s performance by
as much as 25%. Core aspects evaluated included factors such as acoustics, classroom
orientation, temperature, natural light, flexibility, indoor air quality, color and organization
(Bacon, 2011).
Tremblay, Peng, Kruel-Froseth and Dunbar (1999) had a similar viewpoint, arguing
that the interior design of a classroom affects student learning. In their study, the authors
argued that, as education technology and environment continually change, it is imperative
that interior design also shift to encourage ease of technology use to support learning. This
may include the design of online learning environments or online student interactions,
smaller class sizes, and arrangement of the school furniture, among others. Effectively  The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
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allocating resources to various design factors is imperative to ensure that students are able to
have a more comfortable learning environment that enhances student learning as well as
protects students.
Classroom design has physiological impacts on a student’s experience learning. Core
interior design aspects that need to be taken into consideration include factors such as wall
colors, natural light and personalized student decorations, such as having student paintings on
the wall. Other core factors include temperature levels, desk design, classroom size, activity
centers within the classroom as well as noise levels in the class. Considering these factors is
imperative in ensuring optimal outcomes for the students. Tremblay et al. (1999) asserted
that effective design of under-floor air distribution and ventilation systems plays a crucial
role in effective control of temperature of indoor spaces. This is imperative in controlling the
supply of warm and cold air to the occupied spaces within a classroom, which in turn ensures
the students’ comfort within the learning environment, as well as ensuring a cleaner indoor
environment.
In addition to ensuring student comfort, the design of the classroom environment
should be accomplished in such a manner that these elements are easy to use, even for people
with disabilities, and designers need to make sure that safety precautions, such as ensuring
that the interior decoration uses fire safe fabrics and materials, are taken into consideration.
For instance, Lazo-Flores (2012) examined classroom interior design factors that need to be
taken into consideration for hearing-impaired students in order to ensure both safety and
accessibility for these students. With regard to lighting, reflections, weak lighting and glares
were noted to provide poor visibility for the teachers and thus provided an ineffective
learning environment in terms of accessibility. Also with regard to acoustics, the findings
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showed that, because hearing-impaired students tend to be noisy, coating materials needed to
be used so that sound is absorbed, because if sound isn’t absorbed, not only would the
students’ auditory capabilities be hindered, but this could also lead to ineffective safety,The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
especially when students need to be alerted and communicated with through reverberation of
sounds. Another factor that has to take into account is classroom layout design, as hearingimpaired students are highly visual beings and, thus, the placement of the furniture needs to
be in such a manner that each student is able to have a view of the teacher as well as the
classroom entrance. The distribution of furniture provides security for these students and
helps in preventing harm (Lazo-Flores, 2012).
Designing a learning environment for younger children presents an even greater
challenge, as young children tend to be curious and change their behaviors quickly. Thus,
safety and threat issues for younger children tend to be more pronounced than they are for
older children. Pable (2009) argued that, although there may not be a universal way of
dealing with changing behaviors of young children, a number of strategies can be undertaken
to ensure that the children are safe and not negatively impacted within their learning
environments. These strategies include implementing routines, rules and rituals; scheduling
classroom activities; and finally and most important to this study, arranging the classroom in
such a manner that there are minimal accidents that can occur within the learning
environment.
How preschool classrooms are designed can play a crucial role in dealing with a
number of safety and threat issues that young children may face in their learning
environment. This research study sought to investigate and understand how this can be
achieved. Children are likely to face seven major safety and threat issues within classrooms:
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mechanical, physiological, chemical, emotional, thermal, organic and electric threats
(Cotterell, 1984). Cotterell (1984), in his investigation of these safety and threat issues, noted
that mechanical safety issues might involve injuries due to individuals coming into contact
with hard surfaces or objects, for instance falling or being struck with an object. Thermal
safety issues are those caused by coming into contact with heat, for instance fire, hot air or
hot objects. Electrical threats or safety issues are those caused by electrical shocks, and
chemical threats or safety issues are caused by coming into contact with chemical substances
that tend to be hazards not easily identified, such as irritation due to a substance, corrosive
effects, allergies or toxicities of substances used in classroom. Organic threats or safety
issues, on the other hand, are concerned mainly with being exposed to harmful organisms, for
instance those that transmit infectious diseases, such as the common cold, or unsanitary
conditions. Physiological threats or safety issues may cause physical injuries such as muscle
strains due to using excessive force or maladjusted sitting positions. Finally, emotional
threats and safety issues may result from exposure to adverse conditions and stressful
environments and which are affected by physiological issues (Cotterell, 1984).The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay
Interactions between people and their environment are unavoidable and often
spontaneous. Although an interaction may be positive or negative, how an interior space is
designed may determine the degree to which it is positive or negative. A good design for the
interior space of a classroom has to take into account all the environmental, physical and
cognitive factors that impact individuals’ interaction with their environment and, thus,
harmonize this to make it a space that enhances interaction, making it effective and efficient
emotionally, aesthetically and functionally (Hoerwagen, 1990). This implies that the most
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important factor to take into consideration when designing an interior space is the user of that
space. The Effect of Pollution On The Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children Essay

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