The Causes of a Boom of

1. Introduction
India is known for its traditional medicinal systems—Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Medical systems are found mentioned even in the ancient Vedas and other scriptures. The Ayurvedic concept appeared and developed between 2500 and 500 BC in India [1]. The literal meaning of Ayurveda is “science of life,” because ancient Indian system of health care focused on views of man and his illness. It has been pointed out that the positive health means metabolically well-balanced human beings. Ayurveda is also called the “science of longevity” because it offers a complete system to live a long healthy life. It offers programs to rejuvenate the body through diet and nutrition. It offers treatment methods to cure many common diseases such as food allergies, which have few modern treatments. However, one should be aware that Ayurvedic nutrition is not a “magic bullet” system but requires the full participation of the patient to succeed. It is an interactive system that is user-friendly and educational. It teaches the patient to become responsible and self-empowered. Ayurveda is not a nutritional system for those seeking an escape or excuse to further abuse their body or mind. It is a system for empowerment, a system of freedom, and long life.

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Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional methods are being given up (Table 1). Hence, the modern food habits are affecting the balanced nutrition [2]. There is an ever widening gap in nutrient intake due to which normal life is no longer normal. However, affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Nutrients Intake by traditional ways Intake by modern ways Effect on nutrient intake
Water soluble vitamins (vitamins B and C) and minerals Vegetables used for cooking were/are fresh Freezing and packaging of the cut vegetables Loss of ascorbic acid, water soluble vitamins, and minerals
Proteins, minerals, and vitamin B complex Manual processing of cereals, without polishing Milling and polishing of cereals Reduces protein, minerals, and vitamin B complex
Calcium, iron, thiamine, and niacin Fresh grinding at home Heavy milling and poor storage conditions Loss of calcium, iron, thiamin, and niacin
Iron Cooking in iron pot Food generally cooked in cookware like nonstick and Teflon-coated utensils The benefit of organic iron from the conventional iron pot is not obtained by using modern cookware
Copper Storing of water and cooking use of copper vessels Stainless steel utensils and plastic wares Copper required in minor amount which is not gained from modern utensils used today. Deficiency is known to cause chronic diarrhea, malabsorption problems, and reduce immunity.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Impact of modern food concept in required nutrition.
2. Medicinal Plants Used in Alternative/Traditional Medicines
Alternative medicines are being used by about 60 percent of the world’s population. These medicines are not only used by the rural masses for their primary health care in developing countries but are also used in developed countries where modern medicines dominate [3]. The Indian subcontinent is a vast repository of medicinal plants that are used in traditional medical treatments. The alternative medicines in the traditional systems are derived from herbs, minerals, and organic matter, while for the preparation of herbal drugs only medicinal plants are used. Use of plants as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is an important component of the health care system in India. In India, about 70 percent of rural population depends on the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine. Most healers/practitioners of the traditional systems of medicine prepare formulations by their own recipes and dispense to the patients. In the Western countries, approximately 40 per cent of people are using the herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. This interest in traditional medicines is growing rapidly due to the attention being given to it by the governmental agencies and different NGO’s comprising of general public and researchers as well as the increased side effects, adverse drug reactions, and cost factor of the modern medicines.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

India is the largest producer of medicinal plants. There are currently about 250,000 registered medical practitioners of the Ayurvedic system, as compared to about 700,000 of the modern medicine. In India, around 20,000 medicinal plants have been recorded; however, traditional practitioners use only 7,000–7,500 plants for curing different diseases. The proportion of use of plants in the different Indian systems of medicine is Ayurveda 2000, Siddha 1300, Unani 1000, Homeopathy 800, Tibetan 500, Modern 200, and folk 4500. In India, around 25,000 effective plant-based formulations are used in traditional and folk medicine. More than 1.5 million practitioners are using the traditional medicinal system for health care in India. It is estimated that more than 7800 manufacturing units are involved in the production of natural health products and traditional plant-based formulations in India, which requires more than 2000 tons of medicinal plant raw material annually [4]. More than 1500 herbals are sold as dietary supplements or ethnic traditional medicines [5].The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Alternative medicines are being used by those people who do not use or cannot be helped by conventional medicinal system. Some common medicinal plants having nutraceutical potential and their primary use in traditional medicine [6–26] are being given in Table 2.

Plant name Common name Uses
Asparagus racemosus Willd Shatavari A potent Ayurvedic rejuvenative. It supplies many female hormones and mostly recommended for those women who have hysterectomies. It also helps to maintain urinary tract and strengthens the immune system and also purifies the blood.
Commiphora mukul Engl. Guggul A major ingredient in joint and immunocare and regarded as a remedy in Ayurvedic medicine; it increase white blood cell count to possess strong immuno-modulating properties. It also protects against the common cold as well as used in various other conditions like lower cholesterol and triglycerides, while maintaining the HDL to LDL ratio.
Cyperus scariosus Br. Nagarmusta Useful in supporting healthy genitourinary system and have hepatoprotective properties.
Garcinia cambogia Dr Garcinia Fruits contain biologically active compounds (−) hydroxycitric acid, which is known to inhibit the synthesis of lipids and fatty acids. HCA inhibits the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase that leads to reduce production of acetyl CoA, which is a key substance in fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, formation of LDL and triglycerides is very low. It also suppresses appetite by promoting synthesis of glycogen. That way the brain gets signals of fullness and satisfaction sooner. Garcinia contains significant amounts of vitamin C and used as a heart tonic.
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Yashtimadhu, Licorice It is a versatile medicine in India and China, for gastrointestinal health. It is a mild laxative, soothes and tones the mucous membranes, and relieves muscle spasms. It is an antioxidant, cancer protecting, botanical boosting, and certain immune functions such as interferon production. Its mode of action is as an antimutagen, preventing damage to genetic material that can eventually result in cancer.
Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Gurmarar Its Sanskrit name means literally “sugar destroyer,” has a glycolytic action, and reduces the strength of a glucose solution. It has been used in Ayurveda to regulate sugar metabolism for several centuries. It increases insulin production, regeneration of pancreas cells, and the site of insulin production. Another property is abolishing the taste of sugar, so that Gurmarar has been effective to suppress and neutralize the craving for sweets.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Melia azadirachta L. Nimba, Neem It has strong health alleviating activity, used as a tonic and astringent that promotes healing. The extract has antispasmodic action. Its usage in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years has proved its detoxifying properties. It has shown most beneficial effects for the circulatory, digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems.
Momordica charantia L. Karela, Bitter melon Karela has been widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. It contains Gurmarin, a polypeptide considered to be similar to bovine insulin, and has a strong sugar regulating effect by suppressing the neural responses to sweet taste stimuli.
Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn Shigru, Horseradish tree Shigru contains physiologically active principles that is effective in a broad range of health needs. It contains “Pterygospermin,” an antibiotic-like substance.
Mucuna pruriens Baker Kiwanch, Kapikachchhu, Cow-itch plant It is a good natural source of L. dopa. In the Ayurvedic system it is reported as an effective tonic for nervous system. Studies have demonstrated its usefulness maintaining optimum performance of the nervous system.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Jatamansi, Musk root Jatamansi is a relaxing plant, effectiveness for mental health. It is used in various Ayurvedic formulations as a potent ingredient. It has been shown effective in maintaining a restful sleep and with many menopausal symptoms.
Piper longum L. Pippali, Indian Long Pepper Pippali is a powerful stimulant for both the digestive and the respiratory systems and has a rejuvenating effect on lungs. It plays an important role in release of metabolic heat energy. This effect is the result of increased thyroid hormone level in the body. Pippali a typical Ayurvedic complementary component whose benefit is to increase the bioavailability and enhance absorption of the other active ingredients.
Piper nigrum L. Maricha, Black pepper The black pepper is one of the most important spices which is widely used to amplify the body’s ability to absorb nutrients contained in the food and aid the digestive process.
Bergenia ligulata Wall Pasanavheda It has the unique property like diuretic action with optimum urinary tract health. This important drug supports bladder by acting on the crystalloid-colloid balance and keeping calcium salts in solution.
Terminalia chebula Retz. Haritaki Haritaki is a safe and effective purgative, expectorant, and tonic. It is an important ingredient of the classical Ayurvedic formulation “Triphala” which has a combination of three fruits. Tiphalpha is an important Ayurvedic medicine, which promotes health through successive steps of purification and detoxification. It is known to have strong antimutagenic activity, because of its very rich content vitamin C.
Tinospora cordifolia Miers Guduchi Guduchi is a rich source of natural vitamin C and effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria and in building up the immune resistance and has immune-boosting ability. Use of this plant increases white blood cells the killing ability of macrophages, the immune cells responsible for fighting invaders.
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Ashwagandha In Ayurvedic medicines Ashwagandha holds a place similar to Ginseng in traditional Chinese medicinal therapies. It is also called the “Indian Ginseng.” It has been used for thousands of years as a popular remedy in Ayurvedic systems for many conditions. It is one of the best health tonics and restorative agents that have been used to treat general debility.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Zingiber officinale Rosc Sunthi, Ginger Ginger is considered an adjuvant in many Ayurvedic formulas in which it enhances absorption and prevents gastrointestinal side effects. It is a very common spice which is used in Ayurvedic medicine to improve digestion and to prevent nausea. These properties help bowel movements and relax the muscles which control the digestive system.
Table 2

Some common medicinal plants having nutraceutical potential and their primary use in traditional medicine.
3. Expanding Complementary and Alternative (CAM) Approaches
More than 80 percent of people in developing countries cannot afford the most basic medical procedures, drugs, and vaccines. Among wealthier populations in both developed and developing countries, complementary and alternative practices are popular although proof of their safety and effectiveness is modest. Evidence-based research in Ayurveda is receiving larger acceptance in India and abroad [27–30]. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine has been inaugurated as the United States Federal Government’s lead agency for scientific research in this arena of medicine. Its mission is to explore complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science, support sophisticated research, train researchers, disseminate information to the public on the modalities that work, and explain the scientific rationale underlying discoveries. The center is committed to explore and fund all such therapies for which there is sufficient preliminary data, compelling public health need and ethical justifications [31, 32].The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Complementary and alternative practices are adjuncts or alternatives to Western medical approaches. Economic factors influence user behavior. Although social, cultural, and medical reasons account for most of the appeal of traditional approaches, economic factors also play a role. It is assumed that users of these approaches choose them because they are cheaper than conventional therapies or systems. However, several studies have found that CAM approaches cost the same or more than conventional treatments for the same conditions; thus, people seek them out for reasons other than cost. At least one study showed that financial factors ranked behind such reasons as confidence in the treatment, ease of access, and convenience, in the choice of a traditional healer. Another common misconception is that the poor are more likely to use traditional medicine, but this is not always true. Nowadays people seek CAM techniques because they believe the side effects will be lower. In both developed and developing countries, users of complementary methods also commonly seek conventional care [33]. Table 3 enlists some important Ayurvedic herbal formulations [34].The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Disease Formulation’s ingredients/ratio Dose/method of use
Anemia Asparagus racemosus (roots) 20%
Withania somnifera (roots) 20%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 15%
P. amarus (leaves) 10%
Tephrosia purpurea (leaves) 10%
Plumbago zeylanica (roots) 5%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 15%
Piper longum (fruits) 5% 4 gm of powder is given to the patient, twice daily with water
Asthma/bronchitis Solanum xanthocarpum (whole plant) 25%
Piper longum (fruits) 10%
Adhatoda vasica (leaves) 25%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Curcuma zedoaria (roots) 10%
Ocimum sanctum (leaves) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10% 4 gm (one teaspoonful) of mixed powder given to the patient, twice a day (morning and at bedtime) with water

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Arthritis Piper longum (fruits) 10%
S. xanthocarpum (whole plant) 15%
Withania somnifera (roots) 10%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Curcuma zedoaria (roots) 15%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 15%
Ricinus communis (roots) 15% 4 gm of mixed powder should be given to the patient, twice daily (morning and evening, one hour before meals) with ginger juice for rheumatic problems
Blood circulation Zingiber officinale (roots) 20%
Piper longum (roots) 10%
Withania somnifera (roots) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Curcuma longa (roots) 10%
Terminalia bellerica (fruits) 10%
T. chebula (fruits) 10%
Ocimum sanctum (leaves) 10%
Tephrosia purpurea (leaves) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice daily with water
Cancer Azadirachta indica (bark) 20%
Bauhinia variegata (bark) 15%
Crataeva nurvala (bark) 15%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 15%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) 10%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15% 4 gm of mixed powder should be given to the patient, twice a day (morning and night) with lukewarm honey for cancer cure
Chronic constipation Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) 10%
Plumbago ovata (husk) 20%
Terminalia bellerica (fruits) 10%
T. chebula (fruits) 15%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 15%
Cassia angustifolia (leaves) 20%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, at night before going to bed, with water
Chronic fever Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15%
Ocimum sanctum (leaves) 15%
Adhatoda vasica (leaves) 15%
Azadirachta indica (leaves) 15%
Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) 10%
Piper longum (fruits) 10%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Terminalia bellerica (fruits) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice daily before meals with water.
Cough Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 25%
Adhatoda vasica (leaves) 20%
Ocimum sanctum (leaves) 10%
Piper longum (fruits) 10%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 15%
Solanum xanthocarpum (whole plant) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder should be given to the patient twice daily (morning and at night before going to bed) with lukewarm mixed with honey to cure cold
Cysts Terminalia chebula (fruits) 20%
Azadirachta indica (bark) 20%
Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) 10%, Terminalia bellerica (fruits) 10% The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Withania somnifera (roots) 20%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 20% 4 gm of mixed (one teaspoonful) powder is given to the patient, twice a day (morning and evening) with water
Dental diseases Azadirachta indica (leaves) 15%
A. arabia (bark) 15%
Areca catechu (bark) 15%
Achyranthes aspera (leaves) 10%
Ficus benghalensis (bark) 15%
Quercus infectoria (fruits) 15%
Symplocos racemosa (bark) 15% The powder is applied to the gums and teeth, two times a day. Additionally a gargle of the decoction (3 gm of powder mixed in 150 mL of water)
Diarrhoea Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) 25%
Aegle marmelos (fruits) 25%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
Cyperus rotundus (roots) 10%
Syzygium cumini (seeds) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, three times a day, with curd for dysentery and diarrhoea
Dislocation of bones Asparagus racemosus (roots) 15%
Withania somnifera (roots) 15%
Azadirachta arabica (bark) 20%
Terminalia arjuna (bark) 20%
T. chebula (fruits) 10%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice a day with water for dislocation of bones and fractures
Diabetes Gymnema sylvestre (leaves) 30%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15%
Azadirachta indica (leaves) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 20%
Curcuma longa (roots) 10%
Aegle marmelos (leaves) 15% 4 gm of mixed powder should be given to the patient, twice a day with water
Fistula Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 20%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 20%
T. bellerica (fruits) 15%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15%
Azadirachta indica (leaves) 15%
Withania somnifera (roots) 15% 3 gm of mixed powder should be given to the patient, twice daily with water to treat fistula
Female sterility Asparagus racemosus (roots) 20%
Withania somnifera (roots) 20%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 20%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Ficus glomerata (bark) 10%
F. religiosa (bark) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient twice daily, half an hour before meals with milk
General health tonic Withania somnifera (roots) 20%
Asparagus racemosus (roots) 10%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 10%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 15%
Terminalia arjuna (bark) 15%
Centella asiatica (leaves) 10% 4 gm of powder is given to the patient, twice daily (morning and evening) with milk
Gastritis Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Piper longum (fruits) 10%
Mentha piperita (leaves) 10%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 15%
T. bellerica (fruits) 15%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 15%
Plumbago zeylanica (roots) 10%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15% 4 gm of (one teaspoonful) mixed powder is given to the patient twice daily, half an hour before meals with water
Hair problems Eclipta alba (leaves) 15%
Centella asiatica (leaves) 15%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 15%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 15%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 10%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice a daily with honey
High blood pressure Terminalia arjuna (bark) 35%
T. chebula (fruits) 15%
Asparagus racemosus (roots) 15%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Withania somnifera (roots) 25% 4 gm of powder is given to the patient, twice a day (morning and night) with honey
Heart tonic Withania somnifera (roots) 10%
Terminalia arjuna (bark) 30%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
T. chebula (fruits) 10%
Cyperus rotundus (roots) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Ocimum sanctum (leaves) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice a day with water
Intestinal worms Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) 10%
Mentha piperita (leaves) 10%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 20%
Butea monosperma (seeds) 20%
Azadirachta indica (leaves) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 20%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice daily (morning and night) with water
Epilepsy Centella asiatica (leaves) 30%
Withania somnifera (roots) 20%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 15%
Piper longum (roots) 10%
Achyranthes aspera (leaves) 15%
Plumbago zeylanica (roots) 10% 3 gm mixed powder is given to the patient, twice daily (morning and evening) with fruit juice to treat Hysteria
Leucorrhoea Symplocos racemosa (bark) 35%
Asparagus racemosus (roots) 15%
Adhatoda vasica (leaves) 10%
Aegle marmelos (fruits) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Azadirachta indica (bark) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice daily with water
Leucoderma Psoralea corylifolia (seeds) 20%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 20%
Azadirachta indica (bark) 20%
Areca catechu (bark) 10%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 10%
Eclipta alba (leaves) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder should be given to the patient, twice a day before meals with water
Liver tonic Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark) 10%
Eclipta alba (leaves) 20%
Tephrosia purpurea (leaves) 20%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 10%
Azadirachta indica (bark) 10%
Phyllanthus amarus (whole plant) 20%
Plumbago zeylanica (roots) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient twice daily, half an hour before meals with water
Lack of appetite Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Piper longum (fruits) 10%,
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 30%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 15%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15%
Cassia angustifolia (leaves) 10%
Mentha piperita (leaves) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, two times a day after meals with water for indigestion
Male sterility Withania somnifera (roots) 15%
Mucuna pruriens (seeds) 25%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 20%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 10%
Terminalia arjuna (bark) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 5%
Piper longum (fruits) 5% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice a day with honey
Migraine Curcuma longa (roots) 15%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 15%
Azadirachta indica (bark) 15%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
Ocimum sanctum (leaves) 15%
Eclipta alba (leaves) 15% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice a day with honey
Obesity Terminalia chebula (fruits) 15%
Terminalia bellerica (fruits) 15%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Crataeva nurvala (bark) 25%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 25%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10% 4 gm of powder is given to the patient, twice a day with warm water
Paralysis Curcuma zedoaria (roots) 20%
Withania somnifera (roots) 20%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 20%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 20%
Piper longum (fruits) 5%
Crataeva nurvala (leaves) 10%
Plumbago zeylanica (roots) 5% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, three times a day with honey
Prostate enlargement Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 15%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 15%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 15%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Butea monosperma (seeds) 10%
Adhatoda vasica (leaves) 5%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient twice a day, morning and evening before meals with water
Piles Eclipta alba (leaves) 35%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 15%
Terminalia bellerica (fruits) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Adhatoda vasica (leaves) 10%
Plumbago zeylanica (roots) 5%
Piper longum (fruits) 5%
Aegle marmelos (fruits) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice daily (morning and at bedtime) with water
Sleeplessness Withania somnifera (roots) 20%
Centella asiatica (leaves) 30%
Piper longum (roots) 20%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 10%
Terminalia bellerica (fruits) 10% 3 gm mixed powder is given to the patient, at night before going to bed, with milk
Skin diseases Cyperus rotundus (roots) 10%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 20%
Azadirachta indica (bark) 20%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Curcuma longa (roots) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10%
Centella asiatica (leaves) 10% 3 gm of powder is given to the patient, twice a day before meals with water to cure allergy problems
Sexual debility Withania somnifera (roots) 10%
Mucuna pruriens (seeds) 20%
Asparagus racemosus (roots) 10%
Sida cordifolia (seeds) 10%
Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 20%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 10% About 4 gm of mixed powder should be given to the patient, twice daily (morning and at night before going to bed) with milk
Throat diseases Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 30%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Solanum xanthocarpum (whole plant) 20%
Piper longum (fruits) 10%
Sida cordifolia (roots) 10%
Phyllanthus emblica (fruits) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient twice daily, morning and at bedtime with honey
Thyroid problems Crataeva nurvala (bark) 20%
Bauhinia variegata (bark) 20%
Sida cordifolia (leaves) 15%
Terminalia chebula (fruits) 10%
T. bellerica (fruits) 10%
Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots) 15%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10% 3 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice daily with lukewarm water
Urinary tract Tribulus terrestris (fruits) 25%
Zingiber officinale (roots) 10%
Solanum xanthocarpum (whole plant) 10%
Crataeva nurvala (bark) 25%
Tinospora cordifolia (stems) 10%
Asparagus racemosus (roots) 10%
Tephrosia purpurea (leaves) 10% 4 gm of mixed powder is given to the patient, twice a day with water
Table 3

Some important herbal formulations frequently used in traditional Ayurvedic system in India.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
4. Nutraceuticals an Evolving Alternative Approach
Nutrition is a fundamental need. Various risk factors related to health result from an imbalance in nutrition. These imbalances in India are widely prevalent leading to adverse outcomes. A certain section of the population consumes diet which does not provide sufficient calories, let alone sufficient nutrients. In India, nearly 20% of the total population and 44% of young children (below 5 years of age) are undernourished and underweight. On the other hand, there is a huge population that is nourished in calorie intake but not in terms of nutrient intake. This segment would typically include lower middle to upper class population with sufficient purchasing capacity but probably less awareness about their nutrient requirements, leading to imbalanced nutritional uptake. In fact, in our population about 30% in urban and 34% in rural areas consume more than the recommended number of calories with higher than recommended levels of dietary fats and could be the largest contributor in making India the future cardiovascular and diabetes capital of the world. The third population segment, which is about 80 million, consumes nutrients and calories more than those recommended for the lifestyle they have opted for. The main risk factors in developing countries like India are related to nutrition and contribute to nearly 40% of total death and 39% of total disease burden. The main leading risk factors in developing countries The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Figure 1

Risk factors related to nutrition— 1: underweight, 2: unsafe sex, 3: blood pressure, 4: unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, 5: cholesterol, 6: tobacco, 7: indoor smoke from solid fuels, 8: low fruit and vegetable intake, 9: zinc deficiency, 10: iron deficiency, 11: vitamin A deficiency, 12: physical inactivity, 13: alcohol, 14: overweight, and 15: unsafe healthcare injections.
According to WHO report, India has the largest burden of cardiovascular diseases and largest number of diabetes patients in the world. The number of cardiovascular diseases patients in Brazil, Russia, China, and India are 4.1, 11.8, 24.5, and 28.9 million, respectively. Likewise the numbers of diabetes patients in same countries are 4.6, 4.6, 20.8, and 31.7 million, respectively. An estimate of the cost of productivity lost on account of mortality due to nutrition-related disorders was estimated to be 0.85% of the GDP in 2004 and is expected to increase up to 1.2% for India’s GDP by 2015. Nearly 340 million people, 30% of the population in urban areas and 34% of the population in rural areas, consume calories more than the norms. Even in the population that shows sufficient calorie intake, the micronutrient consumption is not at desired levels. While the intake of calorie-rich foods may be high, micronutrient-rich foods are being consumed in low proportions. As a result, significant micronutrient deficiencies exist in urban as well as rural areas [35].

Hence, the requirement of external intervention, that can supplement diet to help prevent nutrition-related disorders and promote wellness over treatment of various diseases, has become a necessity, and such products are known as nutraceuticals. A nutraceutical is a food or food component that claims to have health benefits, including treatment and prevention of disease. Nutraceuticals, an emerging concept, can be broadly categorized as products which are extracted from natural sources (nature-like) or manufactured synthetically (man-made), which supplement the diet to provide nutrition over and above regular food and help prevent nutrition-related disorders. Nutraceuticals, foods or food components that help in prevention or treatment of disease, are made from herbal/botanical raw materials. They do more than just supplement the diet. They, as was pointed out, help with disease prevention and treatment. Theoretically, the appeal of nutraceuticals is to accomplish treatment goals without side effects.

The nutraceutical industry is rapidly growing (7%–12% per year). With extensive anecdotal data on exciting health results, nutraceuticals promise significant contributions to disease prevention. The global nutraceuticals market is estimated at 117 billion US dollar of which India’s share is a meager 0.9%. United States and Japan are key markets for nutraceutical consumption. Indian nutraceuticals market is about 1 billion USD which is increasing day by day. Globally, this market is expected to reach 177 billion USD in 2013. The dietary supplements category is expected to be the fastest growing product category globally [2].The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

The traditional systems of medicine have become significantly more popular all over the globe because of the curative property, less toxic and minimal side effects. It is more widely used for the human ailments from time immemorial. It has been estimated that 70-80% of world’s population relies on traditional healthcare. The mode of preparation and plant used in traditional medicine varies from place to place. In addition acceptance of traditional medicines, especially herbal medicines in the developed world is sharply increasing 1, 2, 3.

InASU systems plants, minerals, and animal products are used as main drugs to cure various ailments 4. There is a global resurgence in the use of these medicines along with a growing scientific interest in them as a source of new drugs 5.There has been a boom in the usage of ASU drugs and export is appreciably high in the last two decades 6.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

There has been an increase in science based research in ASU drugs for the purpose of globalization. One of the most critical issues involved in any research study is the quality of the test material.

A study cannot be considered scientifically valid if the material tested is not authenticated and characterized such that the material can be reproduced 7.

ASU drugs may vary in composition and properties, unlike conventional pharmaceutical products, which are usually prepared from synthetic, chemically pure materials by means of reproducible manufacturing techniques and procedures. Correct identification and quality assurance of the starting material is therefore an essential prerequisite to ensure reproducible quality of these medicines which contribute to its safety and efficacy 8, 9. Counterfeits and drugs of poor quality degrade the clinical effects of ASU drugs. Thus authentication is a critical step for successful and reliable clinical applications and for further experimental studies on ASU drugs.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Authentication is especially useful in cases of drugs that are frequently substituted or adulterated with other varieties which are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable. Several herbal drugs in the market still cannot be identified or authenticated based on their morphological or histological characteristics. Use of wrong drugs may be ineffective or it may worsen the condition 10.

The method of evaluation of drugs by veteran collectors experience should be confirmed by scientific methods before starting the research work. Evaluation has become even more difficult when several different individual species were powdered and mixed together in a proprietary medicine 11.

Authentication of Herbal Drugs: Authenticated raw material is the basic starting point in developing a botanical product. In addition, each step of harvest, storage, processing and formulation may dramatically alter the quality and consistency of final product. Therefore methods to ensure quality control in manufacturing and storage are requisite tools to ensure optimal efficacy and safety of these products. Furthermore, such controls are critical for the evaluation of pharmacological, toxicological or clinical studies involving botanical products.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Taxonomic method: The initial step in the identification and authentication of botanical materials entails classical botanical methodologies for collection and documentation of the plant at its source. The botanical origin of the drug is identified and its scientific Latin binomial (i.e. genus species) name is determined based on this method. It is the first step for authentication 12.
Information such as botanical name, vernacular names, site of collection of plant material, details of collector, habitat, season of collection, altitude and part collected etc. are the essential prerequisites even before authentication 12.

Herbarium voucher sample: The sample of collected material should be kept as a voucher sample in a herbarium or a research institute for future references 12.
Macroscopic method: Macroscopic identity of botanical materials is based on parameters like shape, size, color, texture, surface characteristics, fracture characteristics, odor, taste and such organoleptic properties that are compared to a standard reference material 13.
Microscopic method: Microscopy is used to determine the structural, cellular and internal tissue features of botanicals. It is usually used to identify and differentiate two herbals that are similar 14, 15. This is the commonly used technique, convenient, quick and can be applied to proprietary medicines too 16.An example of a botanical that can utilize microscopic techniques to aid in its identification is star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f). As the name suggests, star anise is star shaped fruits that taste like anise; originally a native of southern China, it has now been introduced throughout the tropics and subtropical Eastern Asia.
The fruit is used principally as an aromatic spice in China and India to flavor food and confectionary items 17. It is known for its therapeutic value in traditional Chinese medicine for treating rheumatism, back pain and hernias. Unfortunately, an increasing number of cases of infants, suffering from acute neurological effects- such as seizure, vomiting and rapid eyeball movement have been reported in western countries and United States after the consumption of star anise herbal tea 18.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

These diverse events were suspected to be due to adulteration of Chinese star anise with Japanese or “Bastard” anise 19. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) is well known to contain the toxic sesquisterpenes 20-22.

Fluorescence Microscope: Using the microscope to determine the identity of herbal medicines, namely, microscopic authentication refers to observing cell structure and internal features using a microscope and its derivatives. Besides the ordinary light microscope, polarized and fluorescence microscopes can also be used to enhance the accuracy of authentication. Use of these microscopes expands the number of features available for use in identification. For example, it has been found that starch grains, crystals of calcium oxalate, stone cells, vessels and fibers have stable and special polariscopic characteristics 23, 24.
The fluorescence microscope reveals the fluorescence emitted from herbal tissues under illumination. Many herbal tissues, by virtue of their chemical structures or secondary metabolites, have the ability to emit light of a specific wavelength following the absorption of light with a shorter wavelength and higher energy 25. For example, in recent years, the fluorescence microscope has been applied to distinguish the medicinal herb Oldenlandia diffusa from other species of the same genus which are confused with it, in herbal markets 26. The fluorescence microscope and micro spectrometer can be used to authenticate powdered ASU drugs and measure the distribution of chemicals in the cross section of these drugs.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Physicochemical methods: Physicochemical parameters include total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and sulphated ash. These values of the individual drugs or the proprietary medicines can be compared with the standard values of Indian pharmacopoeia and thus the identity can be ascertained 27.
Chemometric and Spectral methods: Initially the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopic method is restricted only for structural elucidation of isolated compounds from the herbal matrices. It is also found useful in phytochemical studies as a “fingerprinting” device, for comparing a natural with synthetic sample 28. With the advance of computer technology, chemometric method has become a leading tool among the scientific communities towards faster analysis and shorter product development time 29. Among others, an unsupervised pattern recognition technique such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is the most often used method for handling multivariate data without prior knowledge about the study samples 30.
While the supervised classification procedure using Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) based on making a PCA model to assign unknown samples into the predefine class model has also been applied to the analysis of infrared spectra 31.A study using FTIR transmission spectroscopy, associated with the appropriate chemometric methods (PCA and SIMCA) was done to classify Orthosiphon staminens Benth (well known as Java tea for treating infection of the urinary tract, kidney and bladder stone disease) based on its geographical origin and varieties from the obtained characteristics infrared spectrum. Chemometric analysis of spectra is rapid and simple since no chemical treatment of samples is required 32.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Chromatographic methods: High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) are the most commonly used analytical methods for herbal products.33The analysis of volatile compounds by gas chromatography is very important in chemical analysis of herbal medicines 34.
a) Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC): TLC was the common choice for the analysis of herbs before instrumental chromatography methods like GC and HPLC were established. Even nowadays, TLC is still frequently used for the analysis of herbal medicines since various pharmacopoeias still use TLC to provide first characteristic fingerprints of herbs 35, 36. TLC has the advantages of many fold possibilities of detection in analyzing herbal medicines. In addition, TLC is rather simple and can be employed for multiple sample analysis.

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For each plate, more than 30 spots of samples can be studied simultaneously in one time 37. In summary, the advantages of using TLC to construct the fingerprint of herbal medicines are its simplicity, versatility, high velocity, specific sensitivity, simple sample preparation and its economy. Thus TLC is a convenient method to determine the quality and possible adulteration of herbal products 38.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

b) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): HPLC is a popular method for the analysis of herbal medicines, because it is easy to learn and use and is not limited by the volatility or stability of the sample compound. In general HPLC can be used to analyze almost all the compounds in herbal medicines 39.

c) Gas Chromatography (GC): The GC of the volatile oil gives a reasonable fingerprint and can be used to identify the plant. The extraction of the volatile oil is relatively straight forward and can be standardized and the components can be readily identified using GC-MS analysis. The advantages of GC clearly lie in its high sensitivity of detection for almost all the volatile chemical compounds 34.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

d) Capillary Electrophoresis (CE): Capillary electrophoresis (CE) allows an efficient way to document the purity/complexity of a sample and can handle virtually every link of charged sample components ranging from simple inorganic ions to DNA. CE is promising for the separation and analysis of active ingredients in herbal medicines, since it needs only small amounts of standards and can analyze samples rapidly with a very good separation activity 34.

Chemical Fingerprinting: A chemical fingerprinting is a unique pattern that indicates the multiple chemical markers within a sample 40.The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) defines chemical markers as chemically defined constituents, or group of constituents of herbal medicinal product which are of interest, regardless whether they posses any therapeutic activity 41. The quantity of a chemical marker can be an indicator of the quality of herbal medicine.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
The study of chemical markers is applicable to many research areas, including authentication of genuine species, search for new resources or substitutes of raw materials, optimization of extraction and purification methods, structure elucidation and purity determination.

Molecular markers: Molecular markers generally refer to biochemical constituents, including primary and secondary metabolites and other macromolecules such as nucleic acids. DNA markers are reliable for informative polymorphisms as the genetic composition is unique for each species and is not affected by age, physiological conditions as well as environmental factors 42. DNA can be extracted from fresh or dried organic tissue of the botanical material and hence the physiological form of the sample for assessment does not restrict detection 43, 44. Various types of DNA based molecular techniques are utilized to evaluate DNA polymorphisms. These are hybridization based methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods and sequencing based methods 45, 46, 47.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
a) Hybridization based methods: Hybridization based methods include Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and variable number tandem repeats.48 Labeled probes such as random genomic clones, cDNA clones, probes for micro satellite49 and mini satellite50 sequences are hybridized to filters containing DNA, which has been digested with restriction enzymes. Polymorphisms are detected by presence or absence of bands upon hybridization.

b) PCR based methods: PCR based methods involve in vitro amplification of particular DNA sequences or loci, with the help of specific or arbitrary oligonucleotide primers and the thermo stable DNA polymerase enzyme. PCR based techniques where random primers are used include Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 51, 52, Arbitrarily Primed PCR (AP-PCR) 53 and DNA amplification fingerprinting 54, 55. A recent approach known as Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) 56, 57 is a technique that is based on the detection of genomic restriction fragments by PCR amplification.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

c) Microchip method: A DNA micro array is a multiplex technology used in molecular biology and in medicine. It consists of an arrayed series of thousands of microscopic spots of DNA oligonucleotides, called features, each containing Pico moles (10-12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes. This can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA (called target) under high stringency conditions. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected and quantified by detection of flurophore, silver, or chemiluminescence’s labeled targets to determine relative abundance of nucleic acid sequences in the target.

Since an array can contain tens to thousands of probes a micro array experiment can accomplish many genetic tests in parallel. 58. DNA based techniques have widely used for authentication of plant species of medicinal importance. This is especially useful in case of those that are frequently substituted or adulterated with other species or varieties that are morphologically or phytochemically indistinguishable 59.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Dried fruit samples of Lycium barbarum were differentiated from its related species using RAPD markers 60. The RAPD technique has also been used for determining the components of a Chinese herbal prescription Yu-feng-san. In this study, the presence of three herbs (Astragalus membranaceous, Ledebouriella seseloides and Atractylodis macrocephala) in the formulation has been detected using a single RAPD primer 61.

Authentication of Minerals: The use of minerals as source of drugs is largely used in Indian systems of medicine next to herbals, especially in Siddha medicine. They are processed with herbal juices and made into their calcified or oxide forms and administered as drugs. Hence their identification is equally important to herbal drugs.
Physical properties: The physical properties of individual minerals will be a powerful tool for identification. These properties include nature, colour, streak, tenacity, transparency, luster, hardness, fracture, cleavage or parting, magnetism and specific gravity. These unique physical characteristics of minerals can be used for the authentication.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Optical properties: Optical properties include application of optical crystallography in identification of minerals that are crystalline and transparent irrespective of their chemical composition. This can be determined within limits by means of polarizing microscope.
Refractive Index (RI): It is defined as ratio of velocity of light in media to that in vacuum. It varies with wavelength. Immersion method is used to determine the RI. For example Alum and Garnet are isotopic, Calcite, Quartz, Sapphire and Ruby are anisotropic – uniaxial, and Mica and Gypsum are anisotropic – biaxial.
Chemical properties: The Chemical properties include effect on heat, solubility, reaction with acids like HCl, HNO3, H2 SO4, assays which include Volumetric/ Gravimetric/ AAS/ ICPA/ Flame photometry for Na, K, qualitative test for carbonate and sulphate, analysis of heavy metals like Arsenic and other elements.
Microscopic methods: It is a simple, inexpensive and widely used method for the authentication of minerals 12. Light microscopy and polarized microscopy are the common microscopes used for authentication. Light microscopes have a wide application in mineralogy 62. A polarizing microscope is a microscope that is mainly used in geological studies to study geological specimens. For this reason, it is also known as a petrography microscope. A comparative study was carried out with microscopy for the Chinese patent medicine Bo Ying Compound.
The micro morphological characteristics of its 22 components and in crude constituents have been documented and compared with each other. Their corresponding features were described and documented with color digital micrographs, so as to authenticate the presence of genuine crude constituents in the medicine. Another study focused on the authentication of four kinds of mineral arsenicals, including orpiment, realgar, arsenolite and arsenic trioxide.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the minerals were examined and they found that the all can be easily identified and authenticated by using light microscopy coupled with polarized microscopy 63.

Spectroscopic methods:
Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS): Near Infrared Spectroscopy has received much attention for chemical quality and process control because of its speed and attribute of requiring little or no sample preparation 64. NIRS uses the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum(from about 800 nm to 2500nm).
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA): ESCA otherwise known as X- ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) involves only the top 20-50A° of the sample, making it an extremely surface sensitive technique. ESCA spectra can also provide information about an element’s chemical environment or oxidation state. The chemical environment of an atom affects the strength with which electrons are bound to it. Atoms associated with different chemical environments produce peaks with slightly different binding energies which are referred to as chemical shift.
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS): ICP-MS is a type of mass spectrometry that is highly sensitive and capable of the determination of a range of metals and several non metals at concentration below one part in 1012 (parts per trillion). Samples are decomposed to neutral elements in high temperature argon plasma and analyzed based on their mass to charge ratios. It is an automated, simple and unique quantitative and qualitative analysis. It measures elemental isotopes ratio.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS): AAS is based on the light absorption of elements. Nearly 30-40 elements can be detected. AAS is used for the quantitative estimation of inorganic minerals in plant drugs/poly herbal formulations, drugs of mineral/ metals and animal origin. The estimation can be made at ppm (parts per million) level and still lower levels by graphite furnace method.
X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD): The X-ray diffraction pattern of a pure substance is like a fingerprint of the substance. The powder diffraction method is ideally suitable for characterization and identification of polycrystalline phases. Today about 50,000 inorganic and 25,000 organic single components, crystalline phases, and diffraction patterns have been collected and stored on magnetic or optical media as standards. The main use of powder diffraction is to identify components in a sample by a search/match procedure. Further more, the areas under the peak are related to the amount of each phase present in the sample.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF): X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic “secondary” (or fluorescent) X- rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high energy X- rays or gamma rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis particularly in the investigation of metals, and for research in geochemistry, forensic science and archeology.
Authentication of Marine and Animal Products: Animal and marine products have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. In Indian systems of medicine nearly 15-20 percent is based on animal derived substances 65. Although research on marine natural products started only about 50 years ago, marine organisms have been used in traditional systems of medicine in India much before that 66. The following techniques would help in the authentication methods of these products.
Chromatographic methods:
Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS): GC-MS is the marriage of two analytical methods into a versatile technique for the identification of complex volatile materials. Gas Chromatography (GC) effectively separates the constituents of the sample for subsequent analysis and identification by Mass spectrometry (MS). The first result obtained is the compiled data of total ion chromatogram (TIC), which is a plot of the total mass eluting from the GC and detected by MS as a function of time. In a study, effective extraction and GC/MS protocols were established for the detection of authentic and counterfeit components found in allegedly musk containing samples collected from various sources in Taiwan 67.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS): Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS or alternatively HPLC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry. LC-MS is a powerful technique used for many applications which has very high sensitivity and specificity.
Generally its application is oriented towards the specific detection and potential identification of chemicals in the presence of other chemicals. Raw materials like honey and animal fats can be authenticated by this technique and the spectral fingerprints of them can be generated. A qualitative analysis of carotenoid composition was performed by HPLC/UV on samples of Corallium rubrum to generate a chromatogram profile 68.

Immunoassays:
Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): The use of immunological methods for the detection of adulteration in milk and milk products resulted in the development of sensitive, reliable assays capable of detecting low levels of adulteration in milk and milk products. The use of monoclonal antibodies, careful selection of target antigen, and suitable ELISA format has greatly increased the good analysis ability to distinguish between species in milk and milk products 69.
Non Immunological protein based methods:
Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE): Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) provides a versatile, gentle and high resolution method for fractionation and physical-chemical characterization of molecules on the basis of size, conformation and net charge. The polymerization reaction can be rigorously controlled to provide uniform gels of reproducible, measurable pore size over a wide range.
This makes it possible to obtain reproducible relative mobility (Rf) values as physical-chemical constants 70.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

Isoelectric Focusing (IEF): Isoelectric focusing (IEF), also known as electro focusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by their electric charge differences. It is a type of zone electrophoresis, usually performed on proteins in a gel, that take advantage of the fact that overall charge on the molecule of interest is a function of the pH of its surroundings. The above said non immunological protein based methods is focused for milk speciation especially for milk caseins and whey proteins 70.
DNA Finger Printing Methods: Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing or DNA profiling is a technique to distinguish between individuals of the same samples using only samples of their DNA. DNA fingerprints depend on the genetic differences between individuals, the so called DNA markers. DNA fingerprinting is a powerful tool in poultry for investigating genetic diversity within stocks and establishing relationship among stocks and characterizing individuals or populations genotypically. The different techniques of DNA profiling include Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), PCR- Based techniques; Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and Real time PCR (RT-PCR) 71.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay
Spectral methods: The spectral methods used to authenticate animal include UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Near Infrared and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer etc. These methods are specifically employed in the authentication of honey, which is one of the most common adjuvant used in Indian system of medicine.
CONCLUSION: A significant number of methods to authenticate ASU drugs have been addressed here. A simple method like organoleptic characteristics may hold good to authenticate certain drugs but some may require highly sophisticated techniques too, based on the adulterants and similarity in the chemical constituents.

So, it is in the hands of the researchers to choose the right method suitable for the drug of interest which would match the reference standard. Even before choosing the methods the raw materials should be confirmed with traditional practitioners/ vaidhyas.The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

In addition, while utilizing chemical methods and other analytical tools it is mandatory to stick on to the latest validated techniques that suit the study. One needs to understand what type of raw material/formulation one is dealing with and the type of preparation to be evaluated. The evaluation of the adulterants simultaneously along with study drug will pave way for the researchers working on the same drug to eliminate the adulterants and identify the standard and pure raw material.

In spite of all these factors, the microbial contamination, pesticide residue and heavy metal analysis should be considered before processing the raw material for drug preparation. This is regarding the safety issue of drugs. This type of analysis is required when evaluating the authenticity of botanicals because these extraneous contaminants can cause undesired physiological effects.

To conclude, more basic research should be carried out and many individuals should be trained with these authentication techniques to address this issue prevailing in ASU drugs.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We extend our sincere thanks to Prof. Dr. K. Manickavasagam MD(s), Director, National Institute of Siddha, Tambaram Sanatorium and Ms. Savitha Satakopan, Former chair person, Member, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, Ministry of Health, Government of India, for their encouragement and suggestions towards the work. The Causes of a Boom of Ayurveda Essay

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