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will develop 2 Activity diagrams and 2 sequence diagrams that go with their sea- and
fish-level use cases (an activity diagram that goes with their sea-level use case, an
activity diagram that goes with their fish-level use case, a sequence diagram that goes
with their sea-level use case and a sequence diagram that goes with their fish-level use
case). will write up an explanation of the activity and sequence diagrams for their
client (in the form of a memo, about what the diagrams are, why they are important to
the process, and how to read them).
13.
will develop 2 User interface designs diagrams that go with their sea- and fish-level use cases in
the form of ‘screen shots’ of how you imagine the system to look. This needs to be coordinated
among group members. Each screen shot (developed by each of the team-members needs to look
as if it belongs to the same system as the rest of the screen shots). Same color scheme, fonts,
general menu placement etc. Each of the screen shots should be accompanied by a short written
description/explanation of how the user would be expected to interact with the given screen shots
to accomplish the use-case it goes
14.
Explain why it is important to to utilize a methodical approach when performing analysis and
design on an information system. Answer needs to be logical, and cover the most salient
reasons. If you want to give an answer in bullet points that would be acceptable, as long as I can
reasonably understand the points you are making.
Class Project
You are all members of a professional systems analysis and design firm. Acting as consultants,
your job is to obtain information, determine client needs in terms of information systems, and to
help design solutions. Over the next several weeks, you and your group members will use the
skills you have gained over the course of the semester so far and design a solution for your
client. Remember the KIS principle (Keeping it Simple!)
Each diagram will be accompanied by a short write-up that explains what the diagram is
depicting, why the diagram is important, and how the diagram should be read by your
client (remember, most clients do not necessarily have any experience with the SA&D
process and the diagrams might be confusing to them at first).
NOTE: Use cases refer to the full use case descriptions talked about in Chapter 5, not the brief
descriptions talked about in Chapter 3. There is a template for use case write ups in the power
point slides.
1. From the description of the project, your group will decide on a solution that meets the
client’s needs and create a cloud-level use case diagram (which gives the roughest breakdown of the proposed system into sub-systems that your solution system will contain)
you and your partner(s) will then choose one or two sub-systems, to concentrate on for
the rest of your work on the project. You will write up a description of the system you
believe will meet (or even exceed) your client’s wants and needs. You will develop a
Gantt chart using MS Project that lists out the activities your hypothetical systems
development company will be undertaking to create the client’s new system. Activities
that populate the Gantt chart are to include: activities undertaken in each of the phases of
development: planning, analysis, design, build/test, and deploy. Some of these activities
should include the gathering information in the analysis phase—how does your group
plan on obtaining the information? From whom? What is your timeline? In the design
phase, the activities should include design/development of the various parts of the entire
system you propose (even though your diagrams etc, will focus only on a subset of the
entire system, your Gantt chart should be developed as if it was for the full system).
These activities are done as a group, each group needs to deliver only a single cloud-level
use-case as well as a single write-up about your proposed system with a single Gantt
chart.
2. Each group member will choose one type of use of your proposed system to focus on for
the rest of the project. An example might be: Use case for: Creating a new order or
Updating customer information (the choices you can make here will depend on which
sub-system(s) of the whole system your group wants to work on. This level of use-case
will be a sea-level use case which is focused on a single user-goal. Then each member of
the group with their own sea-level use case chosen, will also develop a fish-level use case
that goes with their specific sea-level use case. So each member of the group must
develop their own sea and fish-level use cases and the diagrams to go with them. Usually,
I suggest that groups stick within a single sub-system.
3. Once you have created your use case diagrams for the use cases you chose, you will write
up the use case description (see Chapter 5 in the textbook).
1
4. You will then create entity-relationship diagrams and class diagrams for each use case
diagram (one ERD and one class diagram for each sea- and fish-level use case you
created). Each ERD and class diagram needs a short explanation of what it is showing,
how it is read, etc. Remember, these explanations need only be a few sentences in most
cases, to a maximum of a paragraph.
5. Next, for each use case diagram, you will generate an activity diagram and a sequence
diagram with short explanations.
For all diagrams: A place to start would be similar to what is found in the “How to
Describe Diagrams” document in the Exam Review folder. You could write out these
descriptions for your proposed diagrams, and then flesh out any other information you
feel your client would need.
6. Finally, two screen shots that highlight the two use cases will be drawn (either by hand,
in Visio, using VB.Net, PowerPoint or some other software), each screen will be
accompanied by a short description.
Please remember:
Each diagram will be accompanied by a short write-up that explains what the diagram is
depicting, why the diagram is important, and how the diagram should be read by your
client (remember, most clients do not necessarily have any experience with the SA&D
process and the diagrams might be confusing to them at first).
2
Project Deliverables from each person in each group:
Deliverable 1 (assignment 10A):
1 typed description of the solution you propose—about 1 or 2 pages long. It should explain
generally what the system will allow the client to do, what parts of the business it will link,
how it meets the needs of the client. Then Create a schedule of activities that would be
followed to create your solution: Proposed project activities, scheduling, and resources
allocation (using Microsoft Project create a Gantt Chart).
Due: April 5th at 11:59pm
Deliverable 2 (Assignment 10B):
Each group will create a cloud level use case diagram that shows how the proposed system
will be organized into sub-systems, and then a kite-level use case diagram for the specific
sub-system(s) your group will be focusing on for the rest of the project. Each member of the
group must develop their own Sea-level use case (which focuses on a user-goal) and then a
fish-level use case that goes with a sub-goal from the sea-level—so each group member will
be working on DIFFERENT use-cases. The diagrams and written use cases are needed for
these. Only the diagrams are needed for the cloud and kite level use cases. Due April 5th at
11:59pm
Deliverable 3 (Assignment 11A):
Each group member will develop 2 Entity-Relationship diagrams from their two use-cases.
Each group will write up an explanation of the ERDs for their client (in the form of a
memo, about what ERDs are, why they are important to the process, and how to read them)
Due April 12th at 11:59pm
Deliverable 4 (Assignment 11B):
Each group member will develop 2 Class diagrams that go with their sea- and fish-level use
cases. Each group will write up an explanation of the class diagrams for their client (in the
form of a memo, about what class diagrams are, why they are important to the process, and
how to read them) Due April 12th at 11:59pm
Deliverable 5 (Assignment 12):
Each group member will develop 2 Activity diagrams and 2 sequence diagrams that go with
their sea- and fish-level use cases (an activity diagram that goes with their sea-level use
case, an activity diagram that goes with their fish-level use case, a sequence diagram that
goes with their sea-level use case and a sequence diagram that goes with their fish-level use
case). Each group will write up an explanation of the activity and sequence diagrams for
their client (in the form of a memo, about what the diagrams are, why they are important to
the process, and how to read them).
Due April 19th at 11:59pm
Deliverable 6 (Assignment 13):
Each group member will develop 2 User interface designs diagrams that go with their seaand fish-level use cases in the form of ‘screen shots’ of how you imagine the system to
look. This needs to be coordinated among group members. Each screen shot (developed by
each of the team-members needs to look as if it belongs to the same system as the rest of the
screen shots). Same color scheme, fonts, general menu placement etc. Each of the screen
shots should be accompanied by a short written description/explanation of how the user
would be expected to interact with the given screen shots to accomplish the use-case it goes
with. Due April 26th at 11:59pm
3
Each Deliverable needs to be turned in by each group—a single deliverable for each group.
Partners need to coordinate their turned in work, such that it looks as if it was created by a
single entity (fonts, shapes, formats should be uniform across the partners). Further, each
deliverable should have both individuals names on it, but each diagram should be labeled
with its’ author.
Each diagram will be accompanied by a short write-up that explains what the diagram is
depicting, why the diagram is important, and how the diagram should be read by your
client (remember, most clients do not necessarily have any experience with the SA&D
process and the diagrams might be confusing to them at first).
NOTE: Use cases refer to the full use case descriptions talked about in Chapter 5, not the brief
descriptions talked about in Chapter 3. There is a template for use case write ups in the power
point slides.
Client:
RazorCab Company, Inc.
RazorCab Company is licensed to operate a taxicab service in the northwest Arkansas area. The
company has been in business for the past seven years. Your role is to analyze and design a
system for this company based on the system service request.
The Company owns a fleet of 80 cabs. All the cabs are of the same make and model. However,
they may be from different years. The Company is organized into three departments:
Dispatching, Maintenance, and Management Control. The Dispatching department does the
following activities: dispatching cabs, scheduling drivers, and keeping record of operating
expenses and revenue. The Maintenance department takes care of preventive maintenance and
repairs of the vehicles. It has sufficient excess capacity to provide services to external customers
and does so. The Management Control department is responsible for planning, policy setting,
financing, payroll, accounting, recruitment, etc.
Management Control periodically advertises and receives applications for cab drivers. It
carefully scrutinizes applications especially police records, prior employment history, etc. and
makes recruitments and keeps them on file. Most of the applications are usually from part-time
work seekers. Given that the number of cab drivers is far more than the available number of
cabs, work is uniformly distributed amongst the drivers in a round-robin fashion. Cab drivers are
guaranteed 80 hours every two months. Every month, management selects cab drivers that are to
work that month and passes the information to dispatching department. The Dispatching
department is responsible for detailed daily and weekly scheduling. Also, given that cab drivers
have different preferences regarding working hours, efforts are made to satisfy their preferences
equitably. There is no limit on the number of hours a cab driver may elect to work after they
have been employed for six months, prior to this, new cab drivers are allowed only to work 8
hours in a work day, and no one is allowed to work more than 12 hours in a day.
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At the beginning of the work-shift, a cab driver visits the company premises to pickup his or her
cab. They fill out a “shift work sheet form.” It has two sections: “pickup information” and
“drop back information.” Pickup information includes driver name, identification number, cab
number, cab status, mileage, fuel level, pick up time, etc. Usually they deliver the cab back to
the premises. At that time they fill out “drop back” details like mileage, fuel levels, fill-ups
made, number of journeys made, details of each journey, fares collected, tips collected, etc. The
Dispatching department may sometimes allow cab drivers to take the cab home if circumstances
permit and demand.
The Dispatching department hands cabs over to the Maintenance department both for routine
preventive maintenance as well as for any repairs. Necessary repairs are reported by drivers in
the “drop back” details.
Customers usually call-in for cabs. They give their location and approximate time of pick-up.
They also inquire about fares and lodge complaints. The maximum advance reservation is 24
hours with the exception of airport pickups and drop offs which can be scheduled as far out as 4
weeks.
The company has divided its operations region into 10 areas. On receiving a call from
customers, the dispatcher checks for any available cab in that area, or in the neighboring areas
and informs the customer when the cab will arrive and the approximate fare. Because some
areas are more lucrative than others (e.g., area 2 contains the NW Arkansas airport), cab drivers
must be rotated through area assignments in a fair manner.
To facilitate dispatchers optimally dispatching cabs, drivers are required to call-in every half
hour and inform the dispatcher about their current location and status. All cabs and dispatching
department have CB radios to facilitate this. With permission from dispatchers, cab drivers can
also pick up passengers on their own.
Dispatchers provide the following information to the Management Control department everyday:
1) Daily Expenses report (operating)
a) fuel
b) miles driven
c) repairs
d) maintenance
e) supplies
f) other expenses
2) Area wise operating expenses
a) number of trips
b) number of miles driven
c) number of miles income earned
3) Activities and Income
a) fares collected
b) tips collected
c) total number of trips
– scheduled
5
– unscheduled
4) Car hours total and break up of
a) car hours idle
b) car hours down in servicing
c) car hours that were run
d) car hours that were income generating
5) Employee (cab driver) payroll info:
a) pick-up time, drop-off time
b) break hours
c) number of journeys
d) useful miles driven
e) non-fare/work miles driven
f) total fares collected
g) total tips collected
The Management Control department uses the operations feedback to fine-tune the operations to
maximize profits and provide good customer service. Employee payroll information is used to
mail paychecks to employees. Paychecks are as follows:
Number of hours worked x $2.70 + Number of journeys x $2.00 + 35% of fares collected
+ 100% of tips collected + Bonus (5% of tips)
6
Below we explore another example, this time using actual use-case diagrams for a taxicab
company.
NOTE: This is the appropriate
format for a use-case diagram.
Razorback Taxicab Administrative and reporting sub-system:
Kite level Use-Case Diagram
Clocking
In/Out
Process
Payroll
Dispatchers
Maintenance
workers
Printing
regular
reports
Modify
employee/
customer
records
Create
employee/
customer
records
Managers
Search
employee/
customer
records
Razorback Taxicab Search employee/customer records: Sea-level
Use-Case Diagram
Enter
employee or
customer
system
Search by
Name
Managers
Customers
Search by
Phone
number
Search by
Social
Security
Number
Note: I could have made a Sea
Level Use-case titled Clock
In/Out, Process Payroll or any of
the use-cases listed in the kitelevel diagram. Similarly, below I
chose to model the enter
employee or customer system use
case, but could have chosen any
of the use cases that appear in the
Sea Level use case diagram
Razorback Taxicab Enter employee or customer system:
Fish-level Use-Case Diagram
Verify
credentials
Customers
Choose
employee or
customer
system
Note: The specific actors that
appear on a use-case diagram are
only the actors that interact with
some (or all) of the use cases that
appear at that level. Customers
cannot access any functionality in
the Administrative and Reporting
sub-system, so they do not appear
in the kite or lower level use-case
diagrams. However, if an actor
appears in a lower level diagram,
they must appear in the higher
level diagram.
Managers
Then for the use case diagrams at the sea and fish level, you must create the full use case. An
example from the book is shown below:
Use Case Help
When creating different levels of use cases, here is an example of the different levels of use case
abstraction:
PLEASE NOTE: the picture below is to illustrate the hierarchical nature of use case levels, they are NOT
use-case diagrams. Use case diagrams follow a very specific format outlined in our text books.
So a Cloud level use case diagram would be titled: Run Web Book Store and would include two use cases
titled: Complete Online Purchase Order and Invoice Customer
Then, we would create two Kite level use cases, one titled Complete Online Purchase Order, and the
other titled Invoice Customer. The Complete Online Purchase Order kite level use case diagram would
include three use-cases: Register, Buy Book, and Maintain Profile.
Next we could create Sea level use cases (each titled from the use cases at the higher level of
abstraction), in one example above, we could create three Sea level use case diagrams: Register, Buy
Book and Maintain Profile.
Then each of the use cases drawn in the Sea Level Diagram of our choosing from above could be turned
into an appropriate fish level use cases etc.
1
Use Case Help
Example Use Case Diagrams
Cloud Level Use-case:
Run Web Book Store
Complete
Online
Purchase
Order
Customer
Sales Staff
Invoice
Customer
Manager
Kite Level Use-case:
Complete Online
Purchase Order
Register
Customer
Sales Staff
Buy Book
Maintain
Profile
2
Use Case Help
Sea Level Use-case:
Buy Book
Login
Customer
Search
for
Book
Sales Staff
Add to
Cart
Purchase
Order
Fish Level Use-case:
Login
Enter ID
Customer
Enter
Password
Sales Staff
Request
Password
Help
3
Note: I could have made a Sea
Level Use-case titled Register or
Maintain Profile, I only had to
create one Sea Level use case
diagram and chose Buy Book for
this example. Similarly, below I
chose to model the Login use
case, but could have chosen any
of the use cases that appear in
the Sea Level use case diagram
Use Case Help
Then for the use case diagrams at the sea and fish level, you must create the full use case. An example
from the book is shown below:
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