Substance Disorders Essay

(i).How do substance use disorders affect older adults?

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(ii).Does it affect older populations differently than younger people

Explain

Substance

With alcohol and drugs, comes addiction. Addiction can take over your life entirely. Drugs and alcohol have effects on you that supposedly make you feel good or relaxed. Which is why once you try a substance that makes you feel that way, you don’t want to stop. In many cases, people with addictions cannot admit that they are addicted. They say that could stop abusing substances at any time if they wanted to. Once a person develops an addiction, it is hard for him or her to stop without professional help. In the case of teenage drug and alcohol abuse, many teens don’t realize the serious effects these substances can have on their health and lifestyles. In recent studies shown by the US Department of Education, nearly 1.2 million students between the ages of 15 and 24 have dropped out of high school in just one year. Yes, not all students have the same reasons for dropping out, but more than likely, a large majority of these students have or had a drug or alcohol problem. Because of such addictions, teens are throwing their lives away while harming their bodies too. Not only can substance abuse ruin your life, it can also take your life away. Statistics show, in 2009, an estimated 37,485 died because of drug overdose and brain damage connected to long-term drug abuse.
If drugs and alcohol put your life in danger, why do so many people continue to use them? One argument is that they believe the substances they are using are not harmful. For example, many abusers of marijuana believe that it is not dangerous. They are wrong. Marijuana has been proven to cause cancer and numerous other health problems. People with substance addictions also sometimes believe they will only be affected by drugs and alcohol if they have been using them for a long time. They don’t take their addictions seriously because they think they can stop before the substance abuse becomes a major problem. However, drugs can cause a person (even a first-time user) to stop breathing, have a heart attack, or even go into a coma.Substance Disorders Essay

Drug addiction has become a worldwide problem, especially in teenagers. Many young people become dependent on different types substances and stimulating medicines that comes hand-in-hand with narcotic effect. The life of addicts becomes spoiled in all aspects, as they lose contact with their family and live in a different world. They spend lots of money on drugs, and then look for ways to earn money illegally. If we compare the health problems, there are many dangerous effects of drugs.

At the start of the 1980s, alcohol and drug abuse had attracted the attention of only a few private foundations. As America’s grantmakers began to recognize the devastating toll of alcohol and drug abuse on the nation’s health and on the future of its youth, a surge in funding began in the mid-1980s. Since then, foundations have taken a more active role in prevention, treatment, education, research, and public policy initiatives.Substance Disorders Essay

In this essay, I document the growth of foundation support for efforts to combat substance abuse in the 1980s, and I highlight patterns of giving. Data are from a recently published study of foundation grants reported between 1983 and 1987. The study draws from a sample of over 450 philanthropic foundations, including the 100 largest foundations, ranked by total giving. 1 While these foundations represent only 2 percent of active grant-making foundations, their grants account for at least 40 percent of total dollars awarded annually by private and community foundations. Interpretation and evaluation of grants data were enhanced by information provided in annual reports and by a survey of grantmakers completed in early 1989.

TRENDS IN PRIVATE FOUNDATION GIVING
During the period 1980 to 1987, when all foundation giving rose by 61 percent in inflation-adjusted dollars, support for substance abuse programs increased fourfold. As a share of overall foundation giving, alcohol and drug abuse funding more than doubled during the period, rising from 0.4 percent in 1980 to 1 percent in 1987. As a share of health giving, it climbed from 1 percent in 1980 to 4 percent in 1987, signaling both growing national alarm over public health issues and changes in funding priorities brought on by federal budget cuts by the Reagan administration. (In 1981, the federal government had slashed funding by 25 percent for programs aiming to reduce demand for drugs.)Substance Disorders Essay

When measured in current dollars, grants rose from $4 million in 1980 to over $26 million in 1987. Not only did grant dollars for substance abuse increase among the foundations sampled, but the number of funders rose by over 77 percent, from 107 in 1980 to 190 in 1987. From 1983 to 1987,337 foundations made 1,814 substance abuse grants totaling $87 million. Over this period, the number of these grants paid out annually nearly doubled from 258 to 490. Most of the 1,814 grants were small and benefited local treatment or public awareness programs. Over two-thirds of the grants were less than $25,000, and one-third ranged from $5,000 to $10,000. However, 151 grants exceeded $100,000; these concentrated on treatment programs, with emphasis on expanding local hospital services, long-term care, and special care for women and teenage substance abusers. Large grants also supported national media campaigns, such as the “Chemical People” project, pilot school-based prevention programs, and community-based prevention programs aimed at high-risk populations. Many of the twenty-three largest grants, $500,000 or more, supported capital projects of nationally recognized treatment recovery centers, leading in some cases to their transformation from residences to more innovative, multiservice agencies providing training, outpatient care, and model prevention programs.Substance Disorders Essay

With increased recognition that alcohol and drug addictions coexist, few treatment or prevention programs were restricted to either alcohol or drug abuse. The share of “undesignated” substance abuse funding grew from 57 percent in 1983 to 77 percent in 1987, while the share of grants for alcoholism programs declined from over 30 percent to 12 percent.

While 337 philanthropic foundations reported substance abuse grants between 1983 and 1987, a handful of funders led the field. As illustrated in Exhibit 1 , thirty-five foundations awarded at least $500,000 each over five years—75 percent of all grant dollars ($65 million) and 40 percent of all foundation grants. Not surprisingly, independent foundations, which represent nearly two-thirds of the data sample, paid the largest share of grant dollars, $71.3 million. Independent foundations increased spending from $6.6 million in 1984 to $23 million in 1987, a sign of increased expenditures by the most active funders. Community foundations more than doubled annual grant dollars from $752,000 in 1983 to over $1.7 million in 1987, while funding by company-sponsored foundations peaked in 1984 at $2.1 million and dropped to $1.5 million by 1987.Substance Disorders EssayThe most disturbing thing about drug addiction is that people in different countries of the world are becoming addicted to all kinds of drugs. There are different types of street drugs such as – cocaine, meth, marijuana, crack, heroin etc. Heroin is one of the dangerous drugs that suppress your heart’s work and is appropriate to achieve narcotic effect.

The alarming rate of drug consumption has always been a problem and has detrimental effects on the society. Personal and family problems also lead to drug abuse among youngsters who fail to deal with personal problems. The physiological effects of drug addiction can be difficult to endure and this is why the addict must be treated for their condition. The worst thing is that drugs are that they affect youth in every country of the world.Substance Disorders Essay

The term drug not only means medicine, but fatal narcotics with different specifications. These drugs have their evil effects on mind and body cells of the addicts. The addict becomes dependent on the drug to a great extent that he/she cannot stop using it. Despite of having full knowledge of its effects on health, addicts use it on a regular basis.

Drug addiction is basically a brain disease that changes the functioning of brain. There is an uncontrollable desire to consume drugs, as a result of which addicted people engage in compulsive behavior to take drugs. The addicts find it impossible to control the intake of drugs, as a result of which they fail to fulfill day-to-day responsibilities in efficient manner. Drug addiction is also referred as drug dependency, as the addict develops dependency for particular substance.Substance Disorders Essay

Essay on the Signs of Drug Addiction
Drug addiction is a compulsive disorder that leads an individual to use substance habitually to achieve desired outcome. Millions of people in the world are suffering with drug addiction and the number is expected to increase in the coming years. If the person is using drugs for a longer period, the outcome may change. For example – early experimentation with drugs is rooted in curiosity. However, as the frequency of substance becomes frequent – the body starts to depend in it to function properly.

The most common signs and symptoms of drug addiction are – obsession with a particular substance, loss of control over the usage of drugs, abandoning the activities which you used to enjoy, etc. Drug addiction may have long term impact on life and one may develop severe symptoms such as – fatigue, trembling, depression, anxiety, headache, insomnia, chills and sweating, paranoia, behavior changes, dilated pupils, poor coordination problems, nausea etc.Substance Disorders Essay

Essay on the Causes of Drug Addiction
There are a number of reasons why youth and teenagers are addicted to drugs or related substances. Lack of self-confidence is considered as one of the primary causes of drug addiction. It can also be due to excessive stress, peer pressure, lack of parental involvement in child’s activities etc. some people consider drug addiction can be the cause of drug use and ignorance. The ignorance of drug addiction along with physical pain of condition becomes a primary cause of drug addiction. Here are some of the causes of drug addiction.Substance Disorders Essay

High Level Stress

Young people who have just started their college life or moved to a new city in search of job often face problems with life change. They are more likely to alleviate stress through the use of drugs and similar substances. Finding an easy fix often seems easier than facing the real problem and dealing with it. Trying illegal drugs can lead to addiction and becomes a long term habit.

Social Pressure

Today, we are living in a highly competitive world and it is difficult to grow in such world. There is always a peer pressure in young and old people. However, it is never visible. A lot of young people expect to experience the pressure to use drugs, smoke and drink alcohol. Young people find it difficult to be the person who doesn’t drink or smoke. As they feel isolated and like a social outcast, they make a habit of taking drugs.Substance Disorders Essay

Mental Health Conditions

Another primary reason for trying drugs is mental health condition. People who are emotionally weaker tend to feel depressed about the facts of the world. They look for ways to feel free and live life in a normal way as they go through the period of growing up. In such situation, they make a habit of taking drugs and can lead to addiction.

Psychological Trauma

A history of psychological trauma appears to increase the risk of substance abuse. More than 75% of people who suffered from psychological trauma use drugs as a part of self-medicating strategy or provide an avenue towards self-destructive behaviors. Women are more sensitive to drugs than men, and hence need less exposure to similar effects. The availability of these drugs plays an integral role in perpetuation of addictive behaviors within families.

Exposure to Drug Abuse

Exposure to drug abuse in which the young people are raised is another cause why young people get addicted to drugs. If the individuals grow up in an area where adults use drugs, then the person is likely to try the substance themselves. Setting a good example is extremely important to keep them off drugs and related substances. Providing genuine information about drugs is the best way to prevent drug addiction.Substance Disorders Essay

Essay on the Effects of Drug Addiction
There are many negative effects of drug addiction on physical and mental health. As said, drug addiction refers to compulsive and repeated use of dangerous substances. The effects of drug addiction are wide and profound. The psychological effects of drug addiction comes form the reason that the user is addicted to drugs as well as the changes that take place in brain. Many people start using drugs to handle stress. However, the psychological effects of drug addiction involves craving of the substance and using it to the exclusion of all else.

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Emotional Effects

The emotional effects of drug addiction include – mood swings, depression, violence, anxiety, decrease in everyday activities, hallucinations, confusion, psychological tolerance to drug effects etc. Besides these, there are many physical effects of drug addiction that are seen in the systems of the body. The primary effects of drug addiction take place in brain, which changes the brain functions and impacts how the body perceives pleasure.Substance Disorders Essay

Physical Effects

Other effects of drug addiction include – heart attack, irregular heartbeat, and contraction of HIV, respiratory problems, lung cancer, abdominal pain, kidney damage, liver problem, brain damage, stroke, seizures, and changes in appetite. The impact of drug addiction can be far-reaching and affects every organ of the body. Excessive usage of drugs can weaken immune system and increase susceptibility to infection.

Brain & Liver Damage

The effects of drug addiction are seen in people because the drug floods the brain repeatedly with chemicals such as – serotonin and dopamine. The brain becomes highly dependent on these drugs and cannot function without them. The effects of drug addiction are also seen in babies of drug abusers and can be affected throughout their life.

Drug addiction can cause the liver to work harder, causing significant liver failure or damage. Regarding brain function, drugs can impact daily activities by causing problems with memory, decision making, mental confusion and even permanent brain damage.Substance Disorders Essay

Short Term Effects

Different drugs affect body in different ways. There are some short term effects that occur in drug users depending on the amount of substance used, its purity and potency. Drugs can affect the person’s thinking, mood and perception to a great extent. Drugs can temporarily impair motor functioning and interfere with decision making and even reduce inhibition. The most common substances of drug addiction include – opiates, alcohol, barbiturates, inhalants etc.

A lot of people do not realize the damage caused by drug addiction because the short term effects are not apparent at first. The individual may feel quite invincible and unaware that drugs can actually affect almost every system in the body. The long lasting effects of drug addiction may not be known to addict. If treatment is not sought in time, the physical and emotional health will deteriorate.Substance Disorders Essay

Long Term Effects

The long term effects of drug addiction can have disastrous consequences on physical and mental health. As the body adapts to the substance, it needs increasing amount of it to experience the desired outcome. As the individual continues to increase the dosage, he/she may develop physical dependence. The individual may face deadly withdrawal symptoms, once he/she stops using the substance.

Legal Consequences

Drug abuse not only causes negative effects on your physical and mental health, but can have legal consequences. Individuals may have to deal with the legal consequences for the rest of their life. A lot of companies require the employees to take drug test before offering job. Driving under the influence of drugs can lead to serious legal action and even heavy fines.

By understanding the physical impact of the substance, individuals can make informed decision regarding their health. Remember that it is never late to seek help, when it comes to treat drug addiction. There are many rehabilitation centers that help you combat drug addiction in a supportive environment.

Essay on the Prevention of Drug Addiction
As said, prevention is always better than cure. It is always best option to deter people from drug abuse. Though it is practically impossible to prevent everyone from using drugs, there are things we can do to avoid drug addiction. Here are some effective tips to prevent drug addiction.Substance Disorders Essay

Deal with Peer Pressure

The biggest reason why people start using drugs is because of their friends or colleagues who utilize per pressure. No one in this world likes to be left out, especially teens and youngsters. If you are in such situation, you should find a better group of friends who won’t pressure you into harmful things. You should plan ahead of time or prepare a good excuse to stay away from tempting situations.

Treat Emotional Illness

Individuals suffering with any mental condition such as – anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress etc. should seek help from a physiatrist. There is a strong connection between mental illness and drug addiction. Those with weak emotional status may easily turn to drugs.

Learn to Deal with Pressure

People of today’s generation are overworked and often feel like taking a good break. However, they make the mistake of turning to drugs and end up making life more stressful. Many of us fail to recognize this. The best way is to find other ways to handle stress. Whether it is taking up exercising or reading a good book, you should try positive things that help in relieving stress.Substance Disorders Essay

Understand the Risk Factors

If you are not aware of the risk factors of drug addiction, you should first know about drug abuse. Individuals who are aware of the physical and emotional effects of drug addiction are likely to overcome them. People take up drugs when something in their life is not going well and they are unhappy about their life. One should always look at the big picture and focus on priorities, instead of worrying about short term goals.

Develop Healthy Habits

Eating a well-balanced diet and doing regular exercise is the best way to prevent drug addiction. A healthy body makes it easier for people to deal with stress and handle life effectively, which eventually reduces the temptation to use drugs.

The above tips are a just a few ideas that can help prevent drug addiction. However, if the person has already developed drug addiction, he/she should seek drug detox treatment at the earliest.Substance Disorders Essay

Essay on the Treatment of Drug Addiction
Drug addiction can be managed effectively like other chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, asthma etc. Treatment of drug addiction is becoming personalized. The comprehensive treatment options not only address addiction, but treat the underlying issues resulting in addiction.

Though there are many options to treat drug addiction, it is not easy. Drug addiction is a chronic disease and one can’t stop using drugs within a few days. A lot of patients need long term or repeated care to stop using drugs completely. Drug addiction treatment depends on the severity of drug abuse. The treatment must stop the person from using drugs as well as keep him away from drugs.

Different treatment methodologies are employed in treating drug abuse. The treatment plan will be devised as per the condition of the addict. It is essential that the treatment is tailored to the unique individual as there is no single treatment that works for all.Substance Disorders Essay

Inpatient drug abuse treatment is one of the options that allow the addict to focus on his/her recovery. Attending this treatment facility can increase the chances of completing the drug addiction rehabilitation program, especially if the addict does not have good support system at home.

Outpatient drug abuse treatment is ideal for those addicts who have a supportive environment at home. It is usually recommended for those who want to attend short-term inpatient treatment program.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is another treatment option that is highly effective in treating drug addiction issues. CBT helps in controlling negative thought patterns that lead to drug abuse. Patients can identify the triggers that cause them to use drugs and learn to respond without the need to turn to the substance.Substance Disorders Essay

Conclusion
Drug addiction is a complex disease that results from a number of factors such as genetic predisposition, history of violence at home and stress. Researchers have been able to identify the factors that lead to drug abuse. Understanding the root cause of drug addiction is one of the best ways to improve treatment options and outcomes of drug addiction in future.

A lot of people do not understand why people get addicted to drugs and related substances. They mistakenly view drug abuse as a social problem and characterize the addict as a weak person. Though there is no scientific evidence on how exactly drugs work in brain, it can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs. There are many treatments that help people counteract the disruptive effects of drug addiction and regain complete control over life.Substance Disorders Essay

Behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success in most of the drug addicts. The treatment approaches are tailored to meet the drug abuse pattern of patients. It is not uncommon for an individual to relapse and start drug abuse again. In such case, an alternate treatment is required to regain control and recover completely. Substance Disorders Essay

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