Sports Trauma

The most obvious and common syptom of being winded, is short breath.
Othe symptoms include, difficulty breathing (especially deeply), and anxiety.

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b) If you have been winded, you should stay in a crouched position so that the muscles can relax. It is important to stay calm and take slow and deep breaths. Using the following procedures may also improve the situation:
TOTAPS: Use this procedure to assess the injury. T | Talk to the injured person: Find out about the pain, how the injury happened, where it happened, and if there are any deformities. | O | Observe: Take into consideration all of the surroundings, the position the injured person is in, the size and shape of any injuries, consciousness, mental state, and any facial expression the injured athlete has. | T | Touch: feel around the injury for any lumps, swelling. Tenderness or heat. Check also for soft tissues and broken bones. | A | Active Movement: Do simple functional test for muscles and joints to see if they can move without pain. They should try move the injured area by themselves. | P | Passive Movement: Move the injured area for the person to check for reactions to pain and any instability. | S | Skills Test: after the previous test have been done without any pain, check if the player is able to return to play |
RICER: This method is used for the immediate treatment for the injured player. R | Rest: By resting after an injury, you reduce the likeliness of further damage. A void putting weight on the injured area. | I | Ice: To reduce bleeding, swellings, and pain, apply ice to the injured area. This cools the tissue. Apply it to the injury for 20 minutes every 2 hours for 2-3 days. Do not put the ice pack directly on the skin. Wrap the ice pack in a towel; take extra precautions for people sensitive to cold. | C | Compression: Wrap a bandaged around as well as above and below the injured area. This provides support to the injury and will reduce bleeding and swelling. | E | Elevation: Keep the injured area elevated using a pillow or other item. It should be above the heart level at all times. This reduces bleeding, swelling, and pain. | R | Referral: Seek further medical assistance as soon as possible. They will inform you of the extent of the injury and advise you of the further actions to improve the situations. |Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay

c) Be extremely careful when managing this injury. Do not put a pillow under the injured person’s head, because this closes off the airways. Don’t move the person or give them any food or drink. Seek medical advice right away; do not wait to see how the person reacts. Use the no harm method to manage the injury.

What is Sports Medicine? Well the word says it all; sports medicine is the study and practice of medicine related to the science of sports in the areas of diagnosing and treating sports injuries, injury prevention, and athletic training that includes workouts or exercises and nutrition. In other words, sports medicine is a field of medicine that concentrates exclusively on the injuries resulting from sports such as football, baseball, basketball, and other sports. There are many different kinds of sports injuries; therefore there have to be several kinds of orthopedics or specialists to treat patients according to their injuries. There are many sport medicine researchers that are working hard to find different ways to help all kinds of…show more content…Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay
Athletic trainers will prevent, diagnose, examine, treat, as well as give rehabilitation to an athletic injury. There are many places where an ATC may work at for example schools, hospitals, clinics, physician offices, workplaces, other athletic training facilities, and professional or Olympic sports area. Sports Medicine is a serious matter; ATC have to know the human anatomy, types of injuries, and how to treat each of them. Athletic trainers are the people who are at the games to assist if there are any injuries or casualties during the games. They tend to save athletes lives if they have suffered a severe injury. They also help injured athletes return back to their sports stronger than before. Sport Medicine deals with treating athletes. Additionally, there are a lot more things that are involved in sports medicine. Sports medicine analyzes the cause and effect on how an injury happens. For example, ATC’s are at every game watching if any injuries occur. If an athlete gets injured, the athletic trainer’s observation gives them a head start on how the injury happened or what it might be. Also, they respond quickly and know what to do if an athlete goes down. They also give techniques and advice to athletes on how to prevent injuries. If there is a severe injury, like a concussion, an ATC (Certified Athletic Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay

According to the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, “In the last 10 years, college sports
have flourished, with athletes required to train and compete year-round rather than seasonally . .
.At the same time, athletes are getting bigger, stronger and more physical – which leads to a
greater risk of injury.” Sports injury can be traumatic for many athletes because it is an
important component of their self-identity. In addition to the physical pain of an injury, athletes
struggle psychologically, however little is known about their emotional response, recovery, and
need for social support. The Emotional Response of Athletes to Injury Questionnaire (ERAIQ)
was adapted to collect information from athletes at an NCAA Division I university about their
response to injury. Two hundred fifty varsity athletes volunteered to participate (127 males and
122 females, mean age = 19.9 years). The athletes represented 14 different teams included
individuals who had experienced injuries and those who had not. Frustration and anger were the
most strongly experienced emotions. Family and teammates were important sources of social
support during recovery. The results suggest several important implications for resources the
address the emotional as well as physical rehabilitation from sports injury. Recommendations
for college athletic staff are discussed and questions for future research are offered.
Keywords: Athlete, Division 1, emotional response, Emotional Response of Athletes to Injury
Questionnaire, injury, NCAA, psychological response, rehabilitation, self-identity, social
support, sports
Advisor: Paul Bueno de Mesquita, Psychology
Emotions of Injured Athletes 2
Psychological Response to Injury, Recovery, and Social Support:
A Survey of NCAA Division I Athletes
According to the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, “In the last 10 years, college
sports have flourished, with athletes required to train and compete year-round rather than
seasonally . . .At the same time, athletes are getting bigger, stronger and more physical – which
leads to a greater risk of injury.” In addition to the physical pain of an injury, an athlete
struggles psychologically. Because psychological variables influence injury onset, duration, and
recovery, many researchers have concluded that “rehabilitation from sport injury involves not
only physical, but psychological considerations” (Crossman, 1997).
Emotions  Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay
The emotional response to injury varies greatly among athletes. While it is apparent that
some injured athletes struggle emotionally, not all athletes experience an observable or
measurable emotional disturbance and ‘take injury in stride’. Some researchers have attempted
to generalize the emotional response to injury. However, the post-injury reactions of athletes are
more complex and varied than originally thought (Crossman, 1997; Smith, 1990).
Although reactions to injury vary, some emotions are more commonly reported than
others. At the Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Program, the Emotional Responses to Athletes to
Injury Questionnaire was used to evaluate emotional response to injury. Frustration, depression,
anger and tension appeared most often and were the highest ranked emotions (Crossman, 1997;
Smith, 1990 as cited in Smith, 1990). Among injured athletes of collegiate or elite status,
common responses to injury were disbelief, fear, rage, depression, tension, and fatigue. (Weiss &
Troxel, 1986 as cited in Smith, 1990) Johnston and Carroll (2000) studied differences between
injured and uninjured athletes and reported that injured athletes disclosed greater negative affect,
lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression and anxiety. In congruence with Johnston and
Emotions of Injured Athletes 3
Carroll’s findings, research on psychological consequences of athletic injury among high-level
competitors revealed that injured athletes exhibited greater depression and anxiety and lower
self-esteem than control groups immediately following physical injury and at follow-up sessions
(Leddy, 1994). Injured athletes express some of the common reactions seen in trauma victims
outlined by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs and include: fear, anxiety,
avoidance, anger, irritability, grief, and depression (Foa, 2005).
Fear is another emotion prevalent among injured athletes. Athletes are fearful about reinjury and because of this fear, they may be reluctant to train with full intensity (as cited in
Shuer, 1997). Some athletes may be reluctant to return to training at all as a result of the fear.Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay
Causes
Several researchers have investigated possible causes to the injured athletes’ emotional
response to injury. Being an athlete requires commitment, determination, and, most importantly,
a passion. An athlete’s sport dictates their life and is a component of their personal identity. In
the article “Mind over Matter” (Ross, 2006), Dr. Aimee Kimball testifies, “A lot of times the
sport is so important to the athletes, it is like they are losing a significant part of themselves.”
“Getting injured is a traumatic experience for athletes; what they have devoted so much time and
energy to, can be suddenly, without warning, taken away” (Crossman, 1997, 334). Additionally,
participating in athletics has many benefits. Deutsch (1985) recognizes that participation
provides a “means of developing physical mastery, positive self-concept, autonomy, and self
control.” When the positive reinforcements of sport and the individual’s association with the
athletic role abruptly cease with the onset of injury, an athlete may question their identity and
experience a sense of loss. Are they still an athlete if they are unable to practice and compete?
And if they are no longer an athlete, then who are they? Because of the loss of health, loss of a
sense of purpose, and loss of self-identity, some researchers (Gordon 1986; Pederson 1986;
Emotions of Injured Athletes 4
Sample 1987 as cited in Smith, 1990) “have suggested that injured athletes progress through a
grief cycle similar to that experienced by the terminally ill.”
Athletes have difficulty coping with the changes that accompany injury. Weiss and
Troxel (1986) found that athletes expressed an inability to cope with injury, activity restriction,
long rehabilitation, and feelings of being externally controlled by their injury (as cited in Smith,
1990). Several other researchers have recognized that the lack of daily physical activity can
affect an injured athlete psychologically. For instance, according to Little (1979), athletes are
predisposed to neurotic illness when mandatory deprivation of exercise is necessary because of a
preoccupation with fitness or sport (as cited in Smith, 1990). Often times an athlete will use
physical activity to cope with stress. When athletes are injured and unable to engage in physical
activity they may have difficulty dealing with their daily stresses. Smith (1990) states that “the
development of neuroses in fitness fanatics deprived of exercise was at least partially because
their life stress prior to injury or illness had been managed by physical activity rather than by
articulating emotional concerns.” Furthermore, the injury can actually produce additional stress
that may induce emotional disturbance. Hardy (1992) suggests that “the major sources of stress
that have been reported by sports performers include fear of failure, concerns about social
evaluation by others, lack of readiness to perform and loss of internal control over one’s
environment.”
Separation from the team takes an emotional toll on injury athletes. Athletes enjoy
camaraderie among teammates and they rely on each other for support. Consequently, “an injury
that even temporarily halts participation causes tear in the fabric of well- being through which
uncomfortable or unacceptable feelings may emerge” (Deutsch, 1985). Wilkerson and Dodder  Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay

NOW

(1982) believe it is though sports that the individual seeks to reunite with the collective
Emotions of Injured Athletes 5
consciousness. A disturbance to the fulfillment of that need causes anxiety and may be traumatic
in the extreme (as cited in Deutsch, 1985).
Effects on Emotion
Research has shown that many different variables play a role in the emotional response to
injury. For instance, Deutsch (1985) believes that the nature of the psychological disturbance
accompanying athletic injury should be assessed based on personality type, stage of adult
development, and circumstances of the injury.
Other studies have recognized the importance of injury severity and the mechanism of
injury in emotional response. Wasley’s study (1998) on Self-esteem and Coping Responses of
Athletes With Acute versus Chronic Injuries, suggests that the type of injury may determine
differences in self-esteem and coping behavior. Several studies have demonstrated that chronic
injuries have a greater effect than acute injuries. For example, Smith and colleagues’ (as cited in
Smith, 1990) noted that when injured athletes were categorized according to the severity of
injury, the least seriously injured athletes expressed less depression, tension, fatigue, and
confusion than the college norms. “In contrast, the most seriously injured athletes experienced
significantly more tension, depression, anger and decreased vigor compared to college norms”
(p. 358). Shuer (1997) also recognized a unique emotional response among athletes with chronic
injuries when using the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a 15- question instrument that measures
subjective distress. Athlete scores on the IES items were compared with other traumatized
groups. Results showed that the avoidance scores for the chronically injured athletes were
significantly greater than those for both groups of fire and earthquake victims. When Smith et al
(as cited in Smith, 1990) used the ERAIQ as a measurement of emotions following injury, the
severity of the injury and the athlete’s perception of recovery appeared to influence the
emotional response.
Emotions of Injured Athletes 6
An additional influence on an athlete’s emotional response is the extent of involvement
and time invested in sport. Johnston and Carroll (2000) found that those who were more
involved in sport and exercise before injury registered higher levels of confusion and perceived
their recovery to be less at the end of rehabilitation. A stronger connection between athletics
and self-identity is created as the athlete invests more time in sport. For this reason, the
emotional disturbance may be greater among those who invest more time in sport. Brewer (as
cited in Crossman, 1997) found that “those athletes who possess a strong self-identity or sense or
worth through the single social role of sport may experience a particularly difficult time
adjusting to being injured” (p. 336).
Age is a crucial factor that must be considered when examining the emotional response to
injury. According to Weiss (2003), children, adolescents, and young, middle, and older adults
differ in their self-perceptions, social influences, emotional responses, motivations, and selfregulation skills relative to physical activity and sport involvement. In her research, Weiss used
a developmental perspective, “considering variations in and interrelationships among thoughts,
emotions, and behaviors at various periods across the life span.” A study by Manuel et al. (2002)
on adolescent athletes coping with sports injuries showed that depressive symptoms decreased
over time in a sample of injured adolescent athletes. In addition, increased social support was
associated with lower initial depressive symptoms. Newcomer and Perna (2005) investigated
features of posttraumatic distress among adolescent athletes. Even after adolescent athletes had
physically recovered from their injuries, they still experienced injury-related distress
(Newcomer, 2003). In a study on the emotional responses of athletes to injury, Weiss and
Troxel (as cited in Smith, 1990) interviewed collegiate or elite athletes. Common responses
among this older group included disbelief, fear, rage, depression, tension, and fatigue in addition
to somatic complaints of upset stomach, insomnia and loss of appetite.
Emotions of Injured Athletes 7
Sex and gender are other important factors in emotional response to injury. Several
studies have examined the emotions of male athletes versus female athletes. In a study of coping
strategies among long-term injured competitive athletes, injured female athletes became more
anxious and tense and had a stronger inclination to use emotion-focused coping strategies  Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay
(Johnson, 1997). In Shuer’s research (1997) on the psychological effects of chronic injury in
elite athletes, chronically injured female athletes’ Avoidance scores were significantly higher on
the Impact of Event Scale than those of their male peers (1997).
Consequences of Emotion
While physical injury evokes psychological distress, psychological anguish can affect an
athlete physically. Psychological distress can sensitize athletes to pain and alters the risk,
response, and recovery of an injury (Ahern, 1997). Nideffer (1993, as cited in Ahern 1997)
found that psychological stressors, such as the fear of injury or re-injury could elicit a cycle of
physical and psychological effects that result in decreased performance and complications with
rehabilitation. According to Crossman (1997) negative emotions experienced as a result of
injury can influence the athlete’s attitude toward and subsequent recovery form injury.
Ultimately, “psychological predispositions and consequences play a critical role in determining
the ultimate impact and duration of injury” (Ahern, 1997, 756).
Not only can an athlete’s psychological state affect rehabilitation, but it also can
predispose athletes to injury. Cryan and Alles (as cited in Deutsch, 1985) have “proposed that
athletes who are under stress are more likely to be injured than those who are less stressed” (p.
237).
Role of Support in Rehabilitation
While factors such as stress can hinder an athlete’s rehabilitation, other aspects such as
social support can aid in rehabilitation. Ahern (1997) found that an athlete’s coping resources
Emotions of Injured Athletes 8
influence injury outcome. Johnson (1997) also concluded that social aspects of rehabilitative
work are important (1997). Further confirming the importance of social support in rehabilitation,
Fischer (as cited in Crossman, 1997) discovered that “for injured intercollegiate athletes,
treatment adherence was positively related to social support, self-motivation and pain tolerance”
(p. 336).
Treatment  Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay
Several studies have revealed that athletes are hesitant to seek out psychological
counseling. In studies on college athletes by Carmen and Pierce (as cited in Smith, 1990), “noninjured athletes seemed to prefer physical activity to verbalization as a mode of expressing
feelings and athletes were less likely than non-athletes to avail themselves of psychiatric
counseling services” (p. 357). In agreement, Shuer (1997) found that athletes resist seeking
psychiatric treatment or admitting a need for help. Athletes are reluctant to seek help for several
reasons. Many view emotional disturbance as a weakness. Smith (1990) suggests that athletes
may prefer the physical discomfort occurring with injury to any emotional discomfort. In a study
by Pierce (as cited in Smith, 1990), “student athletes were less verbal, less intellectually oriented
and had more negative views of emotional disturbances of non-athletes.”
Thus, attacking an injury from the psychological perspective is just as important to
recovery as the physiological rehabilitation. As said by Crossman (1997), “while many athletes
spend hours and much energy each day physically preparing for competition, more often than not
they are unprepared psychologically to handle the stress associated with an unforeseen or
unexpected injury” (p. 335). Athletes have access to resources for physical rehabilitation, but
often the psychological distress caused by injury goes untreated. According to Smith et al. and
Chan (as cited in Smith, 1990), “emotional disturbance does occur post-injury and injured
athletes should be given the opportunity to discuss their feelings.” In fact, patients express relief
Emotions of Injured Athletes 9
at being given the opportunity to confide concerns privately, away from the presence of persons
who may have a vested interest in their athletic performance.
The purpose of the research was to investigate the psychological response to injury,
recovery, and social support of athletes. Overall, the research is a valuable addition the growing
field of sports psychology. Results will also have practical implications, showing athletes,
coaches, trainers, and therapists the benefits of addressing both the physical and psychological
aspects of injury. Recommendations are discussed and questions for future research are offered. Sports Trauma And Its Peculiarities Essay

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