PICOT Question: Are children who have obese parents are at risk for obesity compare to children without obese parents between ages of birth to adolescence?
Ensure the following questions are addressed in each summary:
1. What type of research is it (quantitative, qualitative, and design)?
2. What was the research question(s) or hypothesis?
3. What is the sample, the sample size, and sample attributes?
4. What was the setting of the study?
5. What were the researcher’s findings? (Identify one.)
You must submit the research study articles along with your summaries.
• Each summary should be between 150–250 words.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
• Use current APA format to style your paper and to cite your sources.
Review the rubric for further information on how your assignment will be graded.
Due Sunday, 11:59 p.m. (Pacific time)
Some of the integral components of nursing practice are commitment and patience, understanding and trust, flexibility and openness. These, according to qualitative researchers, can be applied to qualitative approaches. Many qualitative studies have in the recent past found their way into medical and nursing press. This has helped in improving knowledge base on qualitative nursing researches (Brookes, 2007). This term paper seeks to establish ways in which findings of qualitative nursing research study influence the way care is provided in different work settings. The paper also undertakes to highlight the reasons behind researchers resolve to conduct qualitative rather than quantitative nursing research study.
Ways in which the findings of a qualitative nursing research study can be used to influence the way care is provided in a given work setting Qualitative nursing research findings are very important in decision making process in a working set up and at the national level. Qualitative researches ability to analyze information conveyed through language and behavior in natural setting makes it ideal for capturing expressive information pertaining to beliefs, values, feelings and motivation.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Nursing research has been a part of nursing practice for many years, consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research; it is essential in guiding nursing practice. Many nurses have a baseline understanding of research in general, but it is important for the researcher to understand their own values and beliefs when determining the type of research they will be performing. By understanding the differences between epistemology, methodology, and methods, the researcher can confidently conduct a valid research project.
Overview of Qualitative Research
Research is an essential tool in nursing practice; it been an important link in best nursing care since the days of Florence Nightingale. Florence Nightingale participated in nursing…show more content…
28). Every aspect of the research process is influenced by epistemology, it guides the researcher in justifying the research methods (Carter & Little, 2007; Kramer-Kile, 2012), as it is asking what is knowledge, and how can that knowledge be acquired.
Ontology is the question of the nature of the reality. It deals with what exists, and what the reality of the situation is currently, recognizing that reality can and will change. It assists in defining the views and assumptions of the researcher (Kramer-Kile, 2012).
The epistemology and ontology together guide the researcher towards the type of research they will conduct, and in turn determine the type of methodology and methods of the research (Carter & Little, 2007). Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Qualitative research is concerned with meanings of experiences and interactions. Qualitative research is very common in the social sciences, although it is often used in market research as well (Alasuutari, 2010; Nieswiadomy, 2011). There has been quite a rise in qualitative research in the last 30 years. It first started to emerge in journals in the 1960’s, and an increase in the number of qualitative research can be seen in research journals in the 1980’s (Alasuutari, 2010). Instead of looking at the statistical numbers within research, the researcher in interested in getting within the research, and understanding the phenomenon (Leedy, 2011; LoBionod-Wood & Haber, 2013).
Within qualitative research, the question emerges from the research
Quantitative research,” also called “empirical research,” refers to any research based on something that can be accurately and precisely measured. For example, it is possible to discover exactly how many times per second a hummingbird’s wings beat and measure the corresponding effects on its physiology (heart rate, temperature, etc.).
“Qualitative research” refers to any research based on something that is impossible to accurately and precisely measure. For example, although you certainly can conduct a survey on job satisfaction and afterwards say that such-and-such percent of your respondents were very satisfied with their jobs, it is not possible to come up with an accurate, standard numerical scale to measure the level of job satisfaction precisely.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
It is so easy to confuse the words “quantitative” and “qualitative,” it’s best to use “empirical” and “qualitative” instead.
Hint: An excellent clue that a scholarly journal article contains empirical research is the presence of some sort of statistical analysis
See “Examples of Qualitative and Quantitative” page under “Nursing Research” for more information.
Considered hard science
Considered soft science
Deductive reasoning used to synthesize data
Inductive reasoning used to synthesize data
Focus—concise and narrow
Focus—complex and broad
Basis of knowing—cause and effect relationships
Basis of knowing—meaning, discovery
Basic element of analysis—numbers and statistical analysis
Basic element of analysis—words, narrative
Single reality that can be measured and generalized
Multiple realities that are continually changing with individual interpretation Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
John M. Pfau Library
Examples of Qualitative vs Quantitiative
Unit of analysis
Goal is to generalize?
What is the impact of a learner-centered hand washing program on a group of 2nd graders?
Paper and pencil test resulting in hand washing scores
What is the effect of crossing legs on blood pressure measurement?
Blood pressure measurements before and after crossing legs resulting in numbers
What are the experiences of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labor?
Unstructured interviews with black fathers (5 supportive, 5 non-supportive): results left in narrative form describing themes based on nursing for the whole person theory
What is the experience of hope in women with advances ovarian cancer?
Semi-structures interviews with women with advances ovarian cancer (N-20). Identified codes and categories with narrative examples Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Cardiac apprehension is the fillet of the bosom round. It may happen due to unexpected sudden cardiac apprehension and is frequently associated to Coronary Heart Disease.Sudden decease is unexpected decease. There could be many grounds but the most common cause of sudden cardiac apprehension is a bosom onslaught, ensuing ventricular fibrillation ( VF ) that is quaking of the lower chamber of the bosom or highly rapid uneffective whipping of the lower chamber of the bosom. This irregular bosom beat causes the bosom to all of a sudden halt pumping of the blood. Some cardiac apprehension may happen due to decelerate round of the bosom rate that is bradycardia which is non a really common cause. Other causes of cardiac apprehension and sudden decease occur due to respiratory apprehension, electric daze, submerging, choking, and injury.
CPR is a life salvaging first assistance as it increases the opportunity of endurance of a individual if prompt actions are initiated, shortly after the individual ‘s bosom stopped crushing. Assessing and handling patient out of infirmary with cardiac apprehension is major challenge. Over the period of two old ages experience I came across multiple instances in one of the third attention infirmary, where figure of patient brought dead on reaching due to sudden cardiac apprehension out of infirmary while going in a coach, standing in a infirmary waiting line, electric daze and all of a sudden prostration. I ever thought but can non vouch that a individual will last but the opportunities of endurance would be better if community consciousness rose on how to give effectual CPR.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Harmonizing to United States of America ( USA ) Morbidity and Mortality Report on Out- of – Hospital Cardiac Arrest ( OHCA ) Surveillance ( October 2005- December 2010 ) , each twelvemonth in USA about 300,0000 people died out of infirmary. Approximately 92 % who experienced OHCA event dice. Harmonizing to Singapore medical diary ( 2011 ) , about out of 16,000 sudden decease takes topographic point out of 23 % are due to cardiac apprehension in Singapore. Majority of a individual who is experienced OCHA, irrespective of etiology do non have by stander- cardio pneumonic resuscitation or timely intercessions that could increase the likeliness of the endurance by the clip victim received beforehand life support. Similar state of affairs exist in developing states where non-communicable disease are bit by bit become a prima cause of high mortality rate.
In developed states such as United States of America ( USA ) , New York Amsterdam, Japan, South Korea, Bangladesh, a figure of surveies have been conducted CPR preparation by ballad individual ( Chong Cho, 2010, Taniguchi, 2007, Waalewijin, Tisjen, Koster, 2001. Thomas et.al, 2010, . Nurberger, 2011, Sinclair, 2011 ) .Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
In developing states OHCA is remains unreported and the existent figures are still insidious, Bangladesh is besides stressing to advance CPR preparation for the bystanders in their state. In Pakistan figure of surveies been done on CPR but they are related to In Hospital CPR. However, harmonizing to my cognition none of the surveies have been conducted on bystanders CPR or OHCA in Pakistan. This is the major spread identified in the surveies in Pakistani context.
Aim and organisation of the paper:
The intent of composing this paper is to make community consciousness about importance of Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest ( OHCA ) , means CPR preparation for the ballad individual, would profit a individual who get cardiac apprehension anyplace outside infirmary before Emergency Medical Service arrived. It is major challenged in today ‘s society, if we see bing state of affairs in Pakistan tonss of public violences and force occurrence in the metropolis. So the preparation class will promote and authorise the community or bystanders to take speedy induction of CPR which in bends improves the survival opportunity of the victim.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
The research inquiry was made on the footing of PICOT which symbolizes population, intercessions, comparing, result and Time Frame. My research inquiry is
1. Would CPR preparation benefit people in increasing the opportunities of endurance after cardiac apprehension in the community?
2. What developing schemes should be used for the community or put individual?
The literature reappraisal is divided into two subdivisions. First will discourse hunt scheme in observing relevant literature. Second, purpose to discourse the construct of importance of CPR consciousness for by standers or community people in the visible radiation of literature in depth analysis.
A systematic and comprehensive literature reappraisal was conducted to analyse the topic in the visible radiation of literature. Different stairss were followed to acquire an equal literature on the selected research job. Initially, the hunt was started from cyberspace hunt engine, Google Scholarly selected cardinal word used ; community preparation, out of infirmary, Cardiopulmonary, statistics, facts it gave 7,906 hit the twelvemonth of choice was non done at that clip, so after stipulate similar Key words and bound were set from 1997-2013then it gave 1,880. I found two article relevant to my subject after reappraisal the rubric and abstract. Another, electronic database CINHAL ( cumulative index to nursing and allied wellness literature ) , with cardinal word community consciousness in CPR which gave 8,635 from 1957 to 2013. To filtrate from 1997 to 2013 with cardinal words CPR, Community awareness, wellness instruction bystander, and out of infirmary cardiac apprehension so it came down to 978. After reviewed, I have picked up four relevant articles related to my subject.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
To farther lucubrate my hunt I used two more electronic informations base that is Pub Med cardinal words used bystander CPR which gave 208 articles so to contract down I click to filtrate ten old ages showed me 15 articles out of which I selected four articles. All the surveies that were found from the West ; and one from Bangladesh none of the surveies conducted in Pakistan sing OHCA.
Another information base explored was scientific discipline direct and med consult with progress hunt in which keywords with Boolean operator used were community CPR in Pakistan, Out of hospital cardiac apprehension in Pakistan there was no consequence shown. The literature reappraisal based on synthesis of 8 articles extracted from different beginnings, based on western context. All of the surveies were done in both qualitative, quantitative surveies.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
The importance of CPR, defined as chest compactions and airing, for endurance of cardiac apprehension patients has been demonstrated, and there are indicants that the quality of CPR public presentation influences the result. After reexamining the literature published on bystanders CPR came across hypothesis proving surveies including Randomized Control Trial, Regression theoretical account, Cohort surveies and before and after. Harmonizing to The New Journal of England ( 2010 ) , OHCA claim 100s and 1000s of life worldwide each twelvemonth. Successful resuscitation is disputing yet accomplishable. Early preparation of CPR by a laic individual can increases the endurance opportunities. Initiation of concatenation of survival depends on the individual or aliens, if a bystander starts tardily CPR so the opportunity of survival falls 7-10 % every minute so by stander CPR preparation is critical.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
However, several surveies indicated that the bystanders were loath to get down CPR with oral cavity to talk external respiration, due to fear of acquiring HIV, hepatitis. But no instances have been found in the literature. Mouth to talk airing is serious concern that may halt savior from executing CPR. As a consequence, the AHA Guidelines now recommend that “ laymans should be encouraged to make compression-by manus merely CPR, if they are unable or unwilling to supply deliverance breaths ” on the footing that proviso of compression-only CPR is superior to no CPR. Inclusion standards, community people from any age from 16yrs and supra, sex, gender, and cultural background. Excluding, doctors, nurses and other paramedical staffs.
Harmonizing to Christain vaillaincourt ( 2007 ) , Cardiac apprehension is the taking cause of mortality in North America. The one-year incidence of out infirmary cardiac apprehension in the United States and Canada is estimated to be 55 per 100,000 that are each twelvemonth more than 173,000 out of infirmary cardiac apprehension takes topographic point. Bystander CPR is connected to increase opportunity of survival four times, if a individual receives successful CPR on clip.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Harmonizing to Sarah Sinclair ( 2011 ) , Bangladesh is state where 40 six kids per twenty-four hours ( kids and young person under the age of 20 old ages ) die due to submerging. The universe |Health Organization recommend that immediate resuscitation prior to reaching of Emergency Medical services should be promoted. The Significance of job suggests that if community consciousness given will assist to forestall farther hurt and avoid complication perchance decease, while waiting for the Medical Emergency Service helps arrive.
In one of the survey ‘s writer suggest, the first two links in the concatenation of endurance, are entree and basic CPR action which a bystander can originate till the medical exigency arrived. Assorted efforts have been made in the yesteryear to develop as many by standers through preparation on mannikins, Basic Life Support ( BLS ) , picture, and learning session ‘s. Literature reappraisal discuss the different writers have used different manner for CPR learning. to maximise by stander competence custodies on pattern which gives assurance and willingness and their result on patient endurance.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
As mentioned in the articles ( Waalewjin, Tijssen, and Koster 2001, Hock 2011, ) , foremost two links in the concatenation of endurance: entree and basic CPR is of import for bystanders merely. Harmonizing Chong Cho et.al ( 2010 ) , the ultimate purpose of BLS preparation is to supply lay individual with cognition and accomplishments to execute CPR, but besides to cultivate a strong persuasion to execute CPR in the existent state of affairs. Some writers feel that Course length, eight hours gives better keeping accomplishments than two hours Sessionss. Whereas some writer suggest that CPR skills improved significantly with more pattern on Manikins.
Training through Video:
Another popular method utilizing picture during preparation stresses the importance of speedy action this can be shown through recommend beginning of AHA picture, based on scenarios and how to respond instantly when encountered with such state of affairs. Irrespective of the instruction method keeping of cognition and accomplishments is besides a country of concern, every six months retraining is necessary to maintain a record of their public presentation.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Handss on pattern on mannikins, provide chance to experience how difficult and fast compaction should be delivered this method will besides cut down anxiousness in the bystanders. As it provides, great larning chance to layperson enabling them to supply foremost assistance to the patient.
CPR is a life salvaging first assistance as it increases the opportunity of a endurance of a individual if prompt actions initiate, Out of hospital cardiac apprehension demand immediate attending. As multiple surveies, indicated the importance of preparation for a laic individual or by standers in the developed and the underdeveloped states. State like Bangladesh besides started working on CPR instruction plan, since Pakistan is underreported and under privileged in this instance ; hence, as a nurse it is extremely important to take a measure to educate community about cardio pneumonic resuscitation as lending factor for endurance.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Qualitative research is critical for studies about regulatory issues in nursing and across all health professions. When in-depth stakeholder perspectives are needed, qualitative approaches are often the best methodological choice to ensure their viewpoints and experiences are captured when evaluating the consequences of policy implementation or when informing regulation design. Unlike traditional qualitative health care studies that involve patients or providers in single settings, regulatory studies often have complex challenges related to the available sample sizes, sampling strategies, and data collection approaches. Reporting qualitative findings in ways that are informative, useful, and dialogue provoking about regulatory issues must go beyond inserting long quotes with a single sentence explanation. Artfully capturing the participants’ stories within the regulatory matter under study is vital for understanding potential and actual consequences of regulations. This article provides an overview of common methodological challenges researchers encounter when conducting qualitative research on professional regulation issues and offers solutions to enhance the quality, rigor, and trustworthiness of the findings. The recommendations may prove useful to researchers examining regulatory issues in nursing and other health professions.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
This assignment will critique the strengths and limitations of the research process of a qualitative paper. Nurses have a responsibility to provide holistic quality care to their patients; which must be based on the most up-to-date health information available (Mitchell et al. 2015). Critically analysing evidence is one of the most important steps towards promoting this evidence-based practice (Burns & Grove, 2011). Conversely, the Francis report (2012) declared that nurses need access to precise, comparable and timely information to improve practice. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2015) guidelines state that it is vital that nurses take charge of their own research to ensure use of current best evidence in practice, and developing this research will promote person centred care (McCormack 2003). However, few nurses have actual experience in conducting a research study in the clinical setting (Squires et al. 2011). To enable the critique of this qualitative paper by Paul Canning, the Caldwell framework will be used, although other frameworks will be also be accessed throughout (Appendix 1). This framework was chosen as it provided structure and clarity to the assessment process (Caldwell 2005).Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
There is an increased emphasis on EBP to substantiate clinical decision-making. EBP is defined as the
conscientious integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise, patient values and needs in
the delivery of high-quality, cost effective health care (**Wright-St Clair et al 2014; Burns and Grove 2009
p17). Health clinicians use tools, such as pain or depression scales, frequently in clinical practice and during
research (Imms and Greaves 2013). In this paper only quantitative research will be discussed as one paradigm
for researching health.
THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PAPER
Definition and meaning of Quantitative research
Quantitative research is a means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables
(Polit and Hungler 2013; Moxham 2012). A variable is a factor that can be controlled or changed in an
experiment (Wong 2014 p125). The word quantitative implies quantity or amounts. Information collected
in the course of the study is in a quantified or numeric form (White and Millar 2014). This is referred to as
statistical evidence (White and Millar 2014).
The variables include the Dependent variable (the variable which is hypothesised to depend on or be caused
by another variable) or Independent variable (the variable that is believed to be the cause or influence) (Wong
2014; Polit and Hungler 2013). There may also be Extraneous variables (Polit and Hungler 2013), also known
as Confounding variables (White and Millar 2014 p47), which confuse or confound the relationship between
the Dependent and Independent variables. An example would be as follows: wound healing (Dependent
variable) and type of dressing (Independent variable). Patient age and presence of Diabetes Mellitus would
be Extraneous/Confounding variables.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Quantitative research falls within the philosophical underpinning of Positivism. A Positivist researcher believes
in the concepts of objective reality (Jirojwong et al 2014 p362). Quantitative research attempts to establish
statistically significant relationships, addresses questions by measuring and describing, is based on objective
measurement and observation, and is concerned with correlation and causation (Hamer and Collinson 2014).
A specific example of positivism is where there is generally consensual agreement on foundational aspects
of human body structures (*Wright-St Clair 2014 p18).
An abstract or summary should clearly outline the hypothesis or research question/s, aims and objectives of
the study (Polit and Hungler 2013; Nieswiadomy 2012). A hypothesis is a statement of a predicted relationship
between the variables under study (Polit and Hungler 2013). The research may state a Null hypothesis which
predicts no relationship between the variables (White and Millar 2014 p43; **Wright-St Clair et al 2014,
p.456). It should also cite the quantitative methods used to collect the data, the results, conclusions and
recommendations for practice (Nieswiadomy 2012). Abstract length is generally less than 200 words (Borbasi
and Jackson 2012 p178). The abstract may also include some of the limitations of the study.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Identifying the problem
The problem should clearly describe what is to be studied. The hypothesis, aims and/or objectives should be
clearly and unambiguously stated. Ideally the topic is narrowed down to a specific one sentence statement
of the problem (Nieswiadomy 2012). A useful strategy for formulating EBP question is the acronym PICO/s
(patient, population or problem, intervention or interest, comparison, outcome and study design) (Hoffmann
et al 2013 p22; **Wright-St Clair et al 2014 p457; Burns and Grove 2009 p474). Ideally four criteria are
used in quantitative research namely significance, researchability, feasibility and interest to the investigator
(Moxham 2012 p33).
AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 32 Number 2 34
The literature review is generally in the introductory section (Polit and Hungler 2013). The investigator needs
to determine what is known and not known about the problem, identify gaps in knowledge, establish the
significance of the study and situate the study within the current body of knowledge (Hoffmann et al 2013;
Polit and Hungler 2013; Burns and Grove 2009). The literature search should consider how the major variables
were explored by critiquing the strengths and limitations of the methods previously used. The investigator
may also acquire information about other techniques, instruments and methods of data analysis as well as
also identify potential problems that can be avoided in a new research (Polit and Hungler 2013).Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Quantitative research falls into four main designs, namely, Descriptive, Correlational, Experimental and Quasiexperimental (Borbasi and Jackson 2012; Burns and Grove 2009). The main aim of Descriptive Research
is the accurate portrayal of the characteristics of individuals, situations, or groups and the frequency with
which certain phenomena occur using statistics to describe and summarise the data (Polit and Hungler
2013). Correlational research explores the interrelationship amongst variables of interest without any active
intervention on the part of the researcher (Polit and Hungler 2013). Experimental research is systematic and
objective, particularly in medication trials, known as a Random Controlled Trials or RCT’s. They are considered
as the ‘gold standard’ in research evidence (Hamer and Collinson 2014 p19). In Experimental research the
investigator controls the independent variable and randomly assigns subjects to different conditions. Quasiexperimental research is less powerful than Experimental due to the lower level of control (Burns and Grove
2009). The investigator manipulates an independent variable but subjects cannot be randomised (Polit
and Hungler 2013). The choice of design should allow the variable to be measured or manipulated in the
study (Burns and Grove 2009). Before a study can progress, the investigator will usually clarify and define
the variables under investigation and specify how the variable will be observed and measured in the actual
research situation (Polit and Hungler 2013). This is known as an operational definition (Polit and Hungler
2013; Nieswiadomy 2012). These four designs, discussed above, are compared in the grid at the end of this
paper to highlight similarities and differences in style.Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Quantitative instruments may include self-reporting tools, questionnaires, observation, and biophysical
measures (Polit and Hungler 2013). Commonly used methods in nursing research also include focus groups
and interviews that are qualitative in nature (Moxham 2012). Using both styles is referred to as mixed or
multi-method research (Polit and Hungler 2013). Scales may be used to quantify specific information such as
a Likert scale gives specific choices for example, strongly agree, agree, not sure, disagree, strongly disagree
(Polit and Hungler 2013). Whatever instrument is used the reliability and validity of the instrument is essential.
Reliability refers to the degree of consistency or accuracy with which an instrument measures the attribute
it has been designed to measure (Polit and Hungler 2013). Data retrieved may look authoritative but it could
be incomplete or inaccurate or may not be sufficiently reliable to be of value in generalising to the larger
population. Concurrently, validity refers to the degree to which the instrument measures the phenomena in
the first place or reflects the abstract construct being examined (Burns and Grove 2009 p479).
Descriptive research may use probability sampling which includes simple random, stratified sampling,
proportionate stratified sampling and cluster sampling (Shaughnessy et al 2014). Random sampling is
also known as probability sampling, rather than non-probability sampling, which ensures every element is
AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 32 Number 2 35
likely to be included in the sample (Shaughnessy et al 2014). Correlational and Experimental research use
random sampling. Random sampling gives every member of a population an equal chance/probability of
being included (Polit and Hungler 2013). Quasi-experimental research is called ‘quasi’ because it is part, or
almost, experimental. The component that makes it quasi is the use of a convenience or accidental sample
which does not give the population equal probability of being included and therefore, less rigorous in design
(Polit and Hungler 2013).Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
The investigator is obliged to consider the implications of the proposed research for the participating subjects,
their families and society (Burns and Grove 2009). Most nursing research usually requires the permission of an
appropriate ethics committee (Elliott et al 2012 p93; Jirojwong et al 2011 pp63-66). Ethical guidelines outline
a set of standards for conducting research. Within their practice nurses have a moral and legal obligation to
protect the privacy of an individual (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2012, Conduct Statement 5)
and this holds true within nursing research. Equally important is the premise to protect individuals from the
risk of significant harm (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia 2012, Conduct Statement 8). It is important
that consent is obtained after full explanation of the study’s intent (Borbasi and Jackson, 2012). Participants
are entitled to withdraw from the study at any point without penalty (Jirojwong et al 2014 p70).Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
A pilot study is a trial run of the research (Nieswiadomy 2012). It is conducted on a small number of participants
to assess the adequacy and feasibility of the intended research (Moxham 2012 p35). By doing so the pilot
study can identify problems and strengthen the quantitative methodology.
The research process depends on the collection of data known more specifically as empirical data (Moxham
2012 p35) which is rooted in objectivity or a scientific approach (Polit and Hungler 2013). It is at this point
that the researcher puts the design into action and ensures that the data is collected and recorded. The
findings need to be analysed, and in the case of quantitative research, statistical analysis and interpretation
is an essential part of answering the hypothesis or research questions (Borbasi and Jackson 2012 p114).
Data analysis may involve descriptive or inferential statistics (Moxham 2012). Descriptive statistics describe
and synthesise data and show patterns and trends (Moxham 2012) whereas inferential statistics permit the
investigator to infer whether relationships noted in a sample might occur in a larger population (Polit and
Hungler 2013). Numerical data may be presented in two forms, firstly as raw figures and percentages and
secondly, more visually, as line graphs, tables or histograms (Burns and Grove 2009). To analyse variables
statistically they have to be in a measurable form that means using numbers or scores (Borbasi and Jackson
Measures of central tendency, known as the average, identify how near the usual response a particular
variable lies (Burns and Grove 2009). These averages are expressed as mean, median and mode (Burns and
Grove 2009). The mean is the average, for example, all scores are added up and divided by the number of
subjects. The median represents the exact middle score or value in a distribution of scores. The mode is the
value that occurs most frequently in a distribution of scores (Polit and Hungler 2013; Burns and Grove 2009).Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
Probability refers to the likelihood of a particular outcome (White and Millar 2014 p43). Statisticians use
p-values to measure probability (White and Millar 2014 p43). A simple example of probability is flipping a coin
ten times. It will most likely fall five times as heads and five times as tails. To determine a significant result
the statistics have to have levels of significance. Figures may be expressed as p>0.05 or p<0.05 (Burns and
AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING Volume 32 Number 2 36
Grove 2009 p37). If a probability result is statistically significant (p=<0.05) the result had a less than 5%
possibility of being caused by chance and therefore becomes significant and important (Polit and Hungler
2013). Even when a result is claimed to be statistically significant it is important to remember the results
may still tell us nothing that matters whilst relationships that do not achieve conventional levels of statistical
significance can be important (Lempert 2008).
Another term used in quantitative research is the Confidence Interval (CI). Whenever a mean is calculated
using a sample there is always the possibility of error. The investigator will calculate the CI. If they arrive at a
CI of 95% it means that the investigator is satisfied that 95% of the true population lies between two values
(Liamputtong 2013 p413) for example, the investigator may find average height of humans falls between
1.4m and 1.8m. Essentially the CI represents how true the estimate is (Hoffmann et al 2013 p80). A CI is
an important reminder regarding the limitations of estimates. The greater the sample size the more precise
the CI (Liamputtong 2013 p297).
Standard Deviation (SD) is the spread of data from a mean value (White and Millar 2014 p41). Using the
example of human height, if normal standard height falls between 1.4m and 1.8m then heights outside
those ranges deviate from the norm. The mean and standard deviation are two statistics that help determine
differences and similarities in groups that are being researched (White and Millar 2014 p41).Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
The discussion of findings allows the investigators to make interpretations (Nieswiadomy 2012) that need
to be analysed in an objective and critical manner before drawing conclusions. Recommendations could be
implemented in practice readily or cautiously taken up and piloted over a period of time. Alternatively the
results may not be considered unless modifications are made. An important point to remember is that the
research does not necessarily prove a point and may only suggest a relationship or highlight an issue needing
further investigation. A body of evidence, to support clinical practice, particularly in RCT’s, is the most reliable
source of evidence (Borbasi and Jackson 2012 p195). Limitations of the research should be acknowledged.
All major findings related to the original aims of the study are discussed in relation to whether the data
supports or negates the hypothesis or research question/s (Nieswiadomy 2012). Quantitative And Qualitative Nursing Essay
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