Psychotherapy

First, a trained, certified, or licensed therapist conducts psychotherapy. In addition, treatment methods in psychotherapy are guided by well-developed theories about the sources of personal problems. The concept of counseling, on the other hand, is essentially liberal in that the assumptions underlying its theory and practice are, first, that each individual has the right to shape his own destiny and second, that the relatively mature and experienced members of the community are responsible for ensuring that each person’s choice shall serve both his own interests and those of the society to which he belongs. Anybody can give advice to anyone who needs it. Thus, counseling can take place almost anywhere and at anytime. The counselor does not attempt, however, to solve the person’s problems for him. Adjustment is an individual matter that each person must discover for himself, and the counselor mainly tries to clarify the person’s own thinking so that he can be guaranteed the fulfillment of his personal needs and aspirations. Mental health professionals agree that the effectiveness of therapy depends to a large extent on the quality of the relationship between the client and therapist. In general, the better the rapport is between therapist and client, the better the outcome of therapy. If a person does not trust a therapist enough to describe deeply personal problems  Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

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Overview of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is the treatment of individuals with emotional problems, behavioral problems, or mental illness primarily through verbal communication. At one time the term psychotherapy referred to a form of psychiatric treatment used with severely disturbed individuals. Counseling, on the other hand, refers to the treatment of people with milder psychological problems or to advice given on vocational and educational matters. Counseling psychologists usually work in schools or industrial firms, advising and assisting people.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

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Today the distinction between psychotherapy and counseling is quite blurred, and many mental health professionals use the terms interchangeably. Psychotherapy is an important form of treatment for many kinds of psychological problems. In most types of psychotherapy, as well as counseling, a person discusses his or her problems one-on-one with a therapist. The therapist tries to understand the person’s problems and to help the individual change distressing thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. People often seek psychotherapy when they have tried other approaches, like counseling, to solving a personal problem.

For example, people who are depressed, anxious, or have drug or alcohol problems may find that talking to friends or family members is not enough to resolve their problems. Sometimes people may want to talk to a therapist about problems they would feel uncomfortable discussing with friends or family, such as being sexually abused as a child. Finding a therapist to talk to who is knowledgeable about emotional problems, has patients’ best interests at heart, and is relatively objective can be extremely helpful. Psychotherapy differs in two ways from counseling or from the informal help or advice that one person may give another.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

First, a trained, certified, or licensed therapist conducts psychotherapy. In addition, treatment methods in psychotherapy are guided by well-developed theories about the sources of personal problems. The concept of counseling, on the other hand, is essentially liberal in that the assumptions underlying its theory and practice are, first, that each individual has the right to shape his own destiny and second, that the relatively mature and experienced members of the community are responsible for ensuring that each person’s choice shall serve both his own interests and those of the society to which he belongs.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Anybody can give advice to anyone who needs it. Thus, counseling can take place almost anywhere and at anytime. The counselor does not attempt, however, to solve the person’s problems for him. Adjustment is an individual matter that each person must discover for himself, and the counselor mainly tries to clarify the person’s own thinking so that he can be guaranteed the fulfillment of his personal needs and aspirations. Mental health professionals agree that the effectiveness of therapy depends to a large extent on the quality of the relationship between the client and therapist.

In general, the better the rapport is between therapist and client, the better the outcome of therapy. If a person does not trust a therapist enough to describe deeply personal problems, the therapist will have trouble helping the person change and improve. For clients, trusting that the therapist can provide help for their problems is essential for making progress. The founder of person-centered therapy, Carl Rogers, believed that the most important qualities in a therapist are being genuine, accepting, and empathic.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Almost all therapists today would agree that these qualities are important. Being genuine means that therapists care for the client and behave toward the client as they really feel. Being accepting means that therapists should appreciate clients for who they are, despite the things that they may have done. Therapists do not have to agree with clients, but they must accept them. Being empathic means those therapists understand the client’s feelings and experiences and convey this understanding back to the client. What is more effective then? Psychotherapy or counseling?Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

This question has been hotly debated for decades, and research on this issue presents many difficulties. In conducting studies that compare different therapies, researchers seek to make sure that each treatment group is as similar as possible. For example, researchers may limit the groups to people with the same severity of depression. In addition, within each treatment group, researchers try to make sure that therapists are using the same techniques and are trained similarly. However, patients do not come to therapy with simple problems that fit easily into studies.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Furthermore, therapists of the same theoretical orientation may vary in their techniques and in the skillfulness with which they apply them. Because of these problems, there is no conclusive answer about which type of therapy is best. Most studies have failed to demonstrate that any one approach is superior to another. Some researchers suggest that all therapies share certain qualities, and that these qualities account for the similar effectiveness of therapies despite quite different techniques. Almost since the inception of psychotherapy, therapists and their clients have asked, “Does it work?Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Does psychotherapy help people resolve their problems, feel better, and change the way they deal with other people? ” Therapists and clients are not the only ones asking these questions. In recent years, the agencies that fund mental health services—health insurance companies, health maintenance organizations, and government organizations—have increased their scrutiny of the effectiveness of various psychotherapies in an effort to contain costs. Measuring the effectiveness of psychotherapy is an extremely complex task.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Asking psychotherapists or their clients, “How helpful has therapy been? ” is only a start. The answer does provide some information about how therapists and their clients perceive therapy. However, it does not answer the question of whether psychotherapy is effective because both therapists and clients have vested interests in believing that therapy succeeded. Therapists want to uphold their professional reputation and sense of competence, and clients want to feel that their investment of time and money has been worthwhile.

Because of these biases, most studies of effectiveness rely on other evaluations of a client’s improvement: psychological tests given before and after treatment, reports from the client’s friends and family, and reports from impartial interviewers who do not know the client or whether the client received any therapy. It is evident that psychotherapy and counseling each have their own specific functions in different problems. It is safe to assume that if counseling does not work, then it could be psychotherapy that can do the job.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

For instance, all therapies offer people hope for recovery. People who begin therapy often expect that therapy will help them, and this expectation alone may lead to some improvement. Also, people in psychotherapy may find that simply being able to talk freely and openly about their problems helps them to feel better. Finally, the support, encouragement, and warmth that clients feel from their therapist lets them know they are cared about and respected, which may positively affect their mental health.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

An Overview of Counseling and Psychotherapy

I. Title

Overview of Counseling and Psychotherapy

II. Definition

Psychotherapy is the treatment of individuals with emotional problems, behavioral problems, or mental illness primarily through verbal communication. At one time the term psychotherapy referred to a form of psychiatric treatment used with severely disturbed individuals. Counseling, on the other hand, refers to the treatment of people with milder psychological problems or to advice given on vocational and educational matters. Counseling psychologists usually work in schools or industrial firms, advising and assisting people. Today the distinction between psychotherapy and counseling is quite blurred, and many mental health professionals use the terms interchangeably.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

III. Presentation and Discussion

Psychotherapy is an important form of treatment for many kinds of psychological problems. In most types of psychotherapy, as well as counseling, a person discusses his or her problems one-on-one with a therapist. The therapist tries to understand the person’s problems and to help the individual change distressing thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. People often seek psychotherapy when they have tried other approaches, like counseling, to solving a personal problem. For example, people who are depressed, anxious, or have drug or alcohol problems may find that talking to friends or family members is not enough to resolve their problems. Sometimes people may want to talk to a therapist about problems they would feel uncomfortable discussing with friends or family, such as being sexually abused as a child.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) represents a combination of behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior, psychopathology, and a melding of emotional, familial, and peer influences. There are several subclasses of the psychotherapy CBT some of these include, Rational Emotional Behavior, Cognitive, Rational Living, and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy among others. CBT builds a set of skills that enables an individual to be aware of thoughts and emotions; identify how situations, thoughts, and behaviors influence emotions; and improve feelings by changing dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors (Cully,J., Teten, A.,2008). This topic/theory is chosen because it targets multiple areas of potential vulnerability (e.g., cognitive, behavioral, affective) with developmentally-guided strategies and traverses multiple intervention pathways. The target group or populations in which this research will address include psychological disorders in youth and adolescents. This paper will discuss the framework and review why this practice is a staple for therapeutic practices. The application of CBT within the mental health field will be reviewed and rationalized as to why this particular theory is chosen for future practice.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

History of CBT
True to its name, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) emerged as a rational amalgam of behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior, causal and maintaining forces in psychopathology, and targets for intervention (Kendall & Hollon, 1979). CBT was originally developed to treat depression, and has since been adapted to the treatment of anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia (Wenzel, A., Brown, G. K., & Karlin, B. E. (2011). CBT was developed by Aaron Beck in the 1960’s, this began with development that blended the elements of behavioral therapy with cognitive therapy. Thus, although behavioral therapies and cognitive approaches seemed to develop in parallel paths, over time the two approaches merged into what is now called cognitive-behavioral therapy ( Milkman,H., Wanberg,K.(2007). It stems from the initial approach of Rational Emotive Therapy (RET). Assumptions of cognitive behavioral therapy were initially developed by Albert Ellis in Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and, then, later altered by Aaron Beck with Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Donald Meichenbaum with Cognitive Behavioral Modification.(CBM) (Spicer, A.2005).Within REBT is a directive, persuasive, and confrontational form of therapy in which the therapist fulfills the role of a teacher. Clients have negative ‘irrational’ thoughts when faced with an activating event. When or if clients confront these thoughts and change them, the theory is wanted changes in behaviors/reactions will follow. Cognitive therapy incorporates open ended questions to allow reflection, to address and resolve a person’s issues themselves.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

The numerous strategies that comprise CBT reflect its complex and integrative history. Following from early respondent conditioning theories (Bandura, 1977), CBT incorporates concepts such as extinction and habituation. CBT went on to integrate modeling and cognitive restructuring strategies from social learning and cognitive theories. In addition, focus on self-talk and problem solving are each evident in CBT’s general focus on fostering the development of personal coping strategies and mastery of emotional and cognitive processes. Consistent with a tripartite view (cognition, behavior, emotion) of psychopathology (Barlow, 2000), CBT targets these multiple areas of vulnerability and avenues of intervention.

Research provides a history of CBT as applied to youth psychopathology. This history can be traced back to the 1960’s when the value and effectiveness of the prevailing psychodynamic perspective was questioned (Levitt, 1963) and found to be lacking. Behavior therapy consequently gained distinction but, in the 1960s, these therapies were initially controversial and primarily relegated to the treatment of behavior dysfunction in severely disordered children. It was not until the mid to late 1970’s that the continuing expansion of behavioral therapies reached higher functioning clients, integrated the role of cognitive processing, and incorporated a focus on emotions. The transition did not happen at once. In the end, social cognitive processing, psychology of self-control, and emotion regulation were blended into behavioral interventions and,emerged as CBT of the present day.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Before there was CBT, there was behavioral therapy which initially was controversial and underestimated however ultimately paved the way for empirically-supported treatments for mental health disorders of youth. For example, the Mowrers’ ‘bell-and-pad’ procedure for the treatment of enuresis is an often-cited example of an early behavioral intervention. Though clinical applications of behavioral strategies did not begin in seriousness until the 1960’s,initial work set the stage by targeting and addressing observable behavior and by measuring outcomes for later child cognitive-behavioral interventions.

Chosen Theory
Respondent conditioning explanations of behavior influenced early behavior therapy, particularly for the treatment of anxiety. In respondent conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) closely follows an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) of fear. After repeated pairings, the CS alone will elicit the conditioned response (CR) of fear. Respondent conditioning was historically important in birthing notions of exposure tasks for the treatment of anxiety, now a well-established example, if not hallmark, of modern CBT for child anxiety (Barrios, O’Dell, 1998). Children often try a number of behaviors and then learn from consequences. One example of this is smoking, if you try smoking and you are accepted within the crowd of peers this is a positive reinforcement and a child will likely repeat the behavior. If the same child is caught and disciplined the likelihood of continuing the behavior is minimized and less likely to be repeated (McLeod,S. 2007).These possibilities play a major role in the shaping of behavior over time. Environments low in predictable and preferred contingencies may lead to decreased self-efficacy and maladjustment.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

Many behavioral processes continue to be used within CBT. Over time, behavioral therapy began to address the thought processes and cognitive skills that were seen as involved in the implementation and receipt of contingency management and came to be implemented among less severe populations. This change to higher-functioning youth and to an increased awareness of the role of cognition was an important part of the conversion to CBT. Many behavioral interventions, and cognitive-behavioral interventions, were initiated and researched with children in mind. They were not borrowed adult treatments, or downward extensions of adult treatments applied with children. To its credit, cognitive-behavioral therapies with youth were intentionally developmentally-sensitive and research-informed interventions.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

With CBT the approach is rooted in fundamental principle that one’s cognitions play a significant role in development and maintenance of emotional and behavioral response to life situations. Case in point Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a type of anxiety disorder, this can occur after experiencing extreme emotional trauma with a perceived threat of death or serious injury. CBT approach to treatment typically incorporates two theoretical orientations as to why the fear is developed. The first of these is the Learning Theory. Learning Theory focuses on how the mechanisms of fear and avoidance of the trauma are conditioned, activated and reinforced. The second is Emotional-Processing Theory. This is the meaning attached to the memory prevents the individual from confronting the traumatic memory and then processing the information. The goal of CBT for PTSD patients is to teach cognitive-reframing techniques. These may include a form of exposure to the traumatic memory, such as repeated exposure to images or a written description of the trauma. This allows the patient to construct a detailed account of the event and discuss feelings and cognitions associated. Thought process strategy allows understanding patients to see how pushing the memory further away in the mind actually reinforces the impact of the memory. The memory instead is dealt with and accepted as a memory. In a study of 92 assault victims trauma focused cognitive behavioral treatments/therapy, using virtual reality, imagery, or written exposure are effective treatments for PTSD(Prendes,A., & Resko, S.). Rates of exposure to violence and traumatic events for children and adolescents are exceedingly high.Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay In a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents in the United States, 60.4% reported exposure in the past year, with lifetime rates nearly a half to one-third higher, depending on exposure type (Finkelhor, Turner, Omrod, & Hamby, 2009). Clearly with these statistics CBT will be beneficial in the treatment of children and adolescents. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is also used widely in treatment of borderline personality within youth. CBT with borderline patients because of their explicit focus on self-regulation use of Meichenbaum’s approach to teaching impulse control to impulsive children. Focus on the progressive internalization and reutilization of self-instructions to stop, look, listen, delay, plan, and implement an appropriate strategy. Cognitive techniques, directed against catastrophizing, black-and-white, or either-or thinking are appropriate for treating borderline patients. The therapist points out the way these cognitive patterns are activated under certain circumstances and helps the patient reality-test them when they emerge. Borderline patients are not easily ‘argued out of’ their distortions, and are seldom able when their emotions are aroused to engage in the kind of reality-oriented ‘collaborative empiricism’ of cognitive therapy(Westen,D.1991).Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

The shift forward
CBT is defined as a purposeful combination of the demonstrated efficiencies and methodological rigor of behavioral procedures with the cognitive-mediational processes that influence adjustment (Kendall, Hollon, 1979). In the 1970’s, internal thought processes (e.g., self-talk began to be viewed as both targets and mechanisms of change, with an importance on improving cognitive skills rather than modifying behavior. Two early reports of CBT with children were combinations of self-instructional training, with coping modeling and a response cost contingency. As promise was seen in efforts to incorporate children’s developing cognitive abilities into behavior modification to produce therapeutic change, cognitive processes became integrated with behavioral interventions. By integrating cognition, the behavioral model adopted a broader and effective behavior change strategies.

Interpersonal psychotherapy, a theoretical approach that strives to lessen clients’ symptoms and ameliorate interpersonal relationships, aligns well with my counseling style because I believe in an active, directive, and collaborative approach that seeks to assist clients with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships. With regard to the therapeutic nature of interpersonal psychotherapy, I really am intrigued by the therapy’s focus on being directive, yet prescriptive, with allowing clients to arrive at his or her own decisions yet also making the initiative to ask questions when warranted. In addition, the idea of attentively paying close attention for difficulties in interpersonal relationships  Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay
Interpersonal psychotherapy perceives people as alike by recognizing that interpersonal distress is associated with depressive symptoms (Brakemeier, 2012). An individual who experiences role transitions, grief, interpersonal deficits, and interpersonal disputes have a greater likelihood to experience a depressive episode (Brakemeier, 2012). Human nature, according to interpersonal psychotherapy, is viewed from the perspective of attachment theory with individuals possessing a natural desire to establish interpersonal relationships in order to experience the universal feeling of being cared for by another individual (Wedding & Corsini, 2012). When one experiences problems with an attachment figure or another individual, this can lead to significant distress. Once a person’s interpersonal support has diminished, it may be challenging to contend with grief, role, transitions, and interpersonal conflicts. Psychotherapy As An Addition To Treatment Essay

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