Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper

Addiction is a dependence on a substance where the individual who is affected feels defenseless and unable to stop the obsession to use a substance or prevent a particular behavior. Millions of Americans have addictions to drugs, alcohol, nicotine, and even to behaviors such as obsessive gambling. Pharmacotherapy is a treatment process in which a counselor can use a particular drug to counter act an addictive drug or behavior. Not all counselors agree with this type of treatment. However in order to provide a client with an ethical treatment and unbiased opinions they should be made aware of all scientific evidence of different treatment options. “Thus, attention to addiction pharmacotherapy is an ethical mandate no matter what prejudices…show more content…Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper

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One of the old school medicines used to defer the drinking of alcohol is Disulfiram (Antabuse). Disulfiram is a behavioral intervention in pill form taken on a daily basis that an individual takes to prevent the clearance of alcohol as it is broken down in an individual’s body after they drink. Disulfiram will prevent an individual from drinking because if they drink while taking the drug they will have such a bad reaction they will want to stop the negative behavior of drinking. Because of the alcohol element built up in their blood as it goes through their body the reactions an individual will experience are headache, nausea, vomiting, high, or low blood pressure, and palpitations(Arias & Kranzler, n.d).Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper The individual can be quite sick for an extended period of time. In as much disulfiram will stay in an individuals system for One to two weeks. Therefore, if an individual decides they want to stop taking disulfiram the individual still would have to wait a period of time before drinking alcohol or the reactions will still occur. Disulfiram is a behavioral intervention to prevent the drinking from continuing. There is no cure for alcoholism. However, disulfiram can affect the outcome of alcoholism treatment. The side effects for using disulfiram are the first couple of weeks the individual may feel tired and over a period of time an individual may develop a metallic taste in their mouth.

Pharmacotherapy
is a treatment using drugs or other pharmacological agents. A similar notion of chemotherapy refers to the pharmacotherapy in oncology. Pharmacotherapy is a conservative (non-invasive) treatment.Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper

Pharmacotherapy is also a subdivision of pharmacology, which studies the drug therapy.

There are following kinds of pharmacotherapy:

  1. Ethyotropic therapy (etc-Greek ????? — cause and ?????? – direction) is the perfect kind of pharmacotherapy. This type of treatment is aimed at eliminating the causes of disease. Examples of causal FT is a treatment of infectious diseases with anti-microbial medication (benzylpenicillin in streptococcal pneumonia), the use of antidotes in the treatment of patients with poisonings due to toxic substances.
  2. Pathogenetic therapy is aimed at elimination or suppression of disease development. Most of the currently used drugs refers specifically to this group of drugs. Antihypertensives, heart glycosides, antiarrhythmic, antiphlogistic, and many other psychoactive drugs have a therapeutic effect by suppressing the mechanisms of the disease.Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper
  3. Symptomatic therapy is aimed at eliminating or limiting certain manifestations of the disease. The symptomatic medicines include painkillers, not affecting the cause or mechanism for disease development. Antitussives is also a good example of symptomatic drugs. Sometimes these drugs may have a significant effect (removal of pain syndrome in myocardial infarction) on the duration of the primary disease process and at the same time play the role of the pathogenetic therapy.
  4. Substitution therapy is used with a deficit of natural nutrients. Substitution therapy includes treatment using enzyme preparations (pancreatin, panzinorm etc.), hormonal drugs (insulin for diabetes, tireoidin for myxoedema), preparations of vitamins (vitamin d, for example, when rickets). Drugs for substitution therapy, not eliminating the causes of the disease, can maintain the body’s normal existence for many years. Not coincidentally, such severe disease as diabetes is considered a particular way of life in the USA.
  5. Preventive therapy aims to prevent disease. It includes some preventive antiviral agents (for example, rimantadine), disinfectant drugs and a number of others.Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper The use of isoniazid anti-TB drugs can also be considered a type of preventive therapy. A good example of preventive therapy is the use of vaccines.

Pharmacotherapy should be distinguished from chemotherapy. If FT is dealing with two members of the pathological process, namely, medication and a microorganism, the chemotherapy has already 3 parts: medicine, macro (the patient) and the causative agent. The drug deals with the cause of the disease (treatment with antibiotics; poisoning — specific antidotes, and so on.)

One of the types of ethyltropic therapy is substitution pharmacotherapy that replace with medications missing physiologically active substances (use of vitamins, hormonal preparations in case of insufficiency of the glands of internal secretion, etc.)Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper

The doctor, when prescribing pharmacotherapy, must consider the available data on the ratio of benefit/harm for each drug, the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the drug, as well as the individuality of the patient (see pharmacogenetics), possibility of drug dependence, the placebo and nocebo effects.

Medicines can have adverse effects on the body of the patient. Possible allergies, idiosyncrasy, causing various metabolism disorders and/or failure of the body systems, caused by medications idiosyncrasy (see Drug disease). Sometimes, in justified cases, the doctor is forced to use subtoxic or even toxic doses of substances (e.g., see Cytostatics). Pharmacotherapy and Medication Paper

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