Patterns of Phycho
According to (UNODC, 2011) estimates show that about 200 million people make illicit use of one type of illicit substance or another. Psychoactive substance use is a social problem that has spread and increased rapidly in educational institutions especially among secondary school students (Neeraja, 2011). This social problem is considered an issue of serious concern as it adversely affects the lives and performance of students involved as well as the harmonious functioning of the entire structure of the society. Use of psychoactive drugs and other associated problems are inimical to the survival and effective functioning of human societies. A significant number of untimely deaths and accidents have been linked to the activities of persons under the influence of one psychoactive drug or the other (Shelly, 2010).
Drug abuse is viewed by different authorities in various forms. Neeraja (2011) defined substance abuse as the dependence on a drug or other chemical substances leading to the effect that are detrimental to the individual’s physical and mental health or the welfare of others. According to Smelzer, Bare, Hinkle, and Cheever (2008) substance abuse is a maladaptive pattern of drug use that causes physical and emotional harm with the potential for disruption of daily life. From these definitions, it can be deduced that substance abuse is the misuse of one or more drugs which could be prescribed by a health practitioner with the intention to alter the way one feels, thinks or behaves and it is associated with consequences which include physical and emotional harm to the person.Patterns of Phycho Active Substance Use Essay
The African Symposium (2010) viewed substance abuse as the improper use or application of drugs by a person without proper knowledge of the drugs and without due prescription from a qualified medical practitioner. This definition focuses on psychoactive drugs. All drugs can be abused to an extent that it turns into addiction when the drug user is unable to stop the use of the drugs despite the harmful effects on the user’s social, personal and economic lives. The problem of substance abuse is so grave that though it was originally conceived as the problem of a ‘select few’, it has extended beyond the usual characteristics of abusers being males, adults and urban based people, to now include females, youngsters and rural dwellers (Rocha, 2009). These abusers erroneously believe that drugs enhance their performance, put them in good mood etc. The accompanying problems of this act constitute a major threat to the wellbeing of the society (Ajala, 2009).Patterns of Phycho Active Substance Use Essay
Recent events in Nigeria seem to suggest that young people are being indoctrinated and used under the influence of psychoactive substances to perpetrate various crimes including terrorism. There is need to examine and control use of these substances in order to prevent escalation of these social maladies. The purpose of this study was to assess the pattern of psychoactive substance use among inmates at Kiru Rehabilitation Centre, Kano in the North Central Region of Nigeria, to determine the extent of their involvement. A total of 148 male inmates completed a modified form of 117-item self-report instrument based on the World Health Organization guidelines for students’ substance-use surveys. The mean age of the inmates was 23.7±3.9 years. A total of 58.9% had primary school and below level of education; 14.9% were school dropped-out; 29.1% unemployed; while 65.9% were engaged in menial jobs. The lifetime prevalence of psychoactive substance use was 47.4%.Current use prevalence of more than one substance was 54.6%. Ready available substances were consumed more and the potent habit-forming ones like Cocaine and Heroin were used more than alcohol. Uses of inhalants were also on the increase. Reasons for use of substances were ready availability, feeling high, enhancing performance and unidentified personal problems. This study has shown that psychoactive substances are commonly used and abused, especially among the uneducated youths in the Northern part of Nigeria. There is need for massive enlightenment campaigns to increase awareness and strategies aimed at discouraging youths from indulging in substances.Patterns of Phycho Active Substance Use Essay
The youths in Nigeria like many countries of the world are increasingly developing addiction to psychoactive substances. The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA, 2011) collected drugs use and abuse data from schools, records of patients admitted at mental health institutions for drug problems and interview of persons arrested for drug offences. The result showed that youths constitute the high risk group for drug trafficking and abuse. Friends and school mates account for about 90% of the source of influence of the use and abuse of various psychoactive substances. In Nigeria, alcohol and cigarette are legal substances but, the two have been discovered to cause physical damage to human bodies. It has been reported that smoking tobacco causes 90.0% of lung cancer, 30.0% of all cancers, and 80.0% of other chronic lung diseases (Sale 2008). Apart from these health implications, according to Stephen (2010), alcohol and cigarette are said to be “gateway drugs” to other more potent psychoactive drugs like marijuana, heroin and cocaine. The future of any community, society, state or nation is tied to the character of the adolescent in that particular place, area or locality. It is also said that “The youth are the leaders of tomorrow”. Therefore responsible youth in the society indicates responsible and brighter future of that society and also the reverse is the case. In our society people are known to have had problems that had made them to adopt various measures to cope with such problems and live successfully within the confines of societal normative values. While some people take solace in lawful ways others resort to unlawful and unhealthy measures such as the use of drugs or psychoactive substances to the extent of abusing them, hence resulting in addiction. According to Edum (2006) the adolescent in our society are not left out in this, as they are either influenced by peer group while others do so because of the easy availability of the abused substances, others also watch on television and films and some read in books and so try to experiment to experience the effects. The effects of specific psychoactive substance vary depending on their mechanism of action, the amount consumed and the history of the user among other factors. An ugly fact that is with us in the recent time is road traffic accident related to psychoactive substance use as well as increased crime rate in Nigeria, though a number of measures are put in place to check this menace. This includes the establishment of the National Drug Law. Patterns of Phycho Active Substance Use Essay
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