Nursing Research Process Components Essay

Good research always starts with prior research for possible topic ideas, as well as finding academic journals that deal with subject. If your discipline is child care, it’s advisable to research works by other writers to understand challenges and relevant issues before choosing researchable topics in nursing that deal with young patients. This step ensures that student finds related sources and chooses slightly different approach to make assignment original.Nursing Research Process Components Essay

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Next step is research paper introduction, which has to have an interesting hook that either makes solid statement or provides an arguable argumentation. If writing on hot controversial topic, make a claim that is later developed in suitable thesis statement. Body paragraphs should avoid using too many ideas because such approach only confuses target audience and basically makes conclusion part impossible to complete. As for final paragraph, it has to make a call to action to provide personal recommendations or analysis of information processed. Remember that if you used any statistics or comparison data in nursing research paper topic, it is necessary to include full listing in Appendix or notes, if applicable.Nursing Research Process Components Essay

The essence of this essay is to highlight in detail the similarities and dissimilarities
between quantitative and qualitative research method. According to Tingen et al.
(2009) research has an enormous impact on the current and future growth of the
nursingprofession;itgeneratesnewknowledgethatimprovesnursingpractice,
which is in line with the initiative “improving general practice: A call to action” (NHS,
2014). This essay will be written considering the steps, components and paradigm of
research process (Morgan, 2007).
According toField(2011), themajor purpose ofresearch isto generatenew
knowledge, broaden and validate existing knowledge in order to improve practice. As
stated in the report of nursing committee (Briggs report), nursing practice should be
evidenced-basedsoastoimprovethequalityofcareoftheirpatientsandthe
general population (ICN, 2009). Research method refers to all procedures used by a
researcher ina research process.It comprises of both the quantitativeand
qualitative method (Kathari, 2004). A quantitative research is a systematic approach
used to quantify variables (Wayne, 2010). Groove (2005) also defined a quantitative
research as a systematic, structured and formal process that uses statistical
approach in the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.Nursing Research Process Components Essay
Contrarily, Carter and Thomas (2005) defined a qualitative research as a systematic
but unstructured method that uses narrative/descriptive approach in the collection,
analysis,interpretationandpresentationofdata.Itisalsoreferredtoaprimary
explorative research that is used to gain understanding of an underlying opinion,
idea and perception, which sets a hypothesis for a potential quantitative study
(Wyse, 2011). Irrespective of the difference in the meaning of a quantitative and
qualitativeresearch,theyarebothresearchmethodsthatfollowastep-by-step
process; considering all the components of a research process such as the
methodologies and designssystematically. Thiscorrespondswith thedefinition of
research as a systematic and rigorous process (Kaplain, 2015).
A quantitative research usesaconvergent/deductivereasoning.Itis frequently
referred as “top-bottom” approach becauseit works on a hypothesis; it analyzes a
broadinterestuntilitisnarrowedtoaconclusion(Gabriel,2013).Aquantitative
research is also known as a “benchop science” simply because it uses experiments
to explain its hypothesis showing relationship between an independent (cause) and a
dependent (effect) variable (Shields andAlison, 2005). In contrast to this, a
qualitative research uses a divergent/inductive reasoning; it generates a new theory
for a quantitative research to experiment on and explores phenomena. This method
is alsoknownas a“bottom-top” approachbecause itbegins withan observation,
develops a pattern, creates a hypothesis to support its theory and draws a
conclusion based on multiple ideas. It explains the meaning of variables rather than
showing their relationship (Sanders et al., 2007). However from a different point of
view,Thomas andJames (2006)isof theopinionthat theroleof aquantitative
research is not just centred on experimenting a theory developed by a qualitative
research rather it could also develop its theory from the researchers predictions.Nursing Research Process Components Essay
Truncellito(2007)emphasizesontheimportanceofepistemology(existenceof
knowledge) and ontology (existence of truth/reality) on the paradigm of a research. It
consists of positivism and interpretism. A quantitative research is based on
positivism; it is objective in nature as it generates knowledge and truth from single
idea and prediction from the researcher, empirical confirmation and experimentation.
On the other hand, a qualitative research is based on interpretism; it is subjective in
nature drawing its knowledge from interpreting multiple views of people’s
experiences, behaviour and understanding of their natural environment with little or
no prediction from the researcher (Myres, 2008; Collins, 2010).
Literature review is a very important component of a research process because it
provides athorough understanding of aresearch problem (Schmelzer,2008). It is
alsosignificantinnursingpracticeasithelpsinthevalidation,comparisonand
enhancement of patient care, which is in line with the UK government policy
“Essence of care” that encourages the use of bench-marking by nurses in order to
compare and improve practice (DH, 2010). Both the quantitative and qualitative
research methodreviews literature, however donein different ways; while a
quantitativeresearcherreviewsliteratureindetailbeforecommencingastudy
(Halloway, 2008); a qualitative researcher briefly reviews literature at the beginning
of a study (Wheelers and Holloway, 2010). However opposing this opinion,
Silverman (2010) argues that a qualitative researcher should rather review similar
literature after data analysis in order to reduce chances of getting biased results
since the researchers thought can be influenced, this is termed “Experimental bias”.
Researchliteratureconsistsofcomplexwords;hencebothaquantitativeanda
qualitativeresearchmethodvalidatetheimportanceofoperationaldefinitionsin Nursing Research Process Components Essay
order to promote understanding of the readers (Cherry, 2015).
A quantitative researchisconductedin anexperimental/controlledenvironment
which ensuresaccuracy of result(Anderson, 2006);contradicting this view,Jones
(2015) is of the opinion that aquantitative research could be biased since it is not
performed in a realistic environment. On the other hand, a qualitative research is
also called a naturalistic science because it is conducted in the natural setting of the
subjects.Thisequips theresearcherwiththeunderstandingoffactors thatcould
influencetheresearchstudy,which could besocio-economicalsuchas;poor
education and illiteracy. People from such background might not be able to cope with
theresearchprocess,whichislinkedwiththewiderdeterminantsofhealthas
explained by Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991). Research performed in a natural
setting is very essential in nursing practice because it improves the understanding of
nurses on the individual experiences of their patients and allows the nurse to reflect
in and on action (Schon, 1983) to develop strategies to improve patient’s experience
of care. This is in line with “improving the patient and client experience” (DH, 2013).
Sampling method refers to technique used in selecting a sample size while a sample
size refers to the group of people chosen to participate in a research. The major
sampling techniques are; probability and non-probability sampling technique
(McLeod, 2014); a quantitative research selects its sample size using the probability
sampling technique so as to obtain results that can be generalized to the population.
Typesofprobabilitytechniqueincludes;systematic,simplerandomandstratified
samplingtechnique(Explorable, 2009).Aqualitativeresearchon theotherhand,
uses non-probability sampling technique such as snowballing, quota,
convenience/purposivesamplingtechniques.However,Barbie(2013)arguesthat
some non-probability sampling methods can also be used by a quantitative research.
Thesamplesizeofaquantitativeresearchislargerangingfrom100-1000and
above (Hopkins, 2008) while that of a qualitative research is relatively small ranging
from 20-30 (Polit et., 2001). However, Mason (2010) argues that a researcher could
select as many sample size as possible until he gets to a saturation point since some
qualitativeresultscanbegeneralized.Fromadifferentopinion,Jackson(2012)Nursing Research Process Components Essay
suggests that a minimum sample size of 10 is accurate since a qualitative research
only sets a hypothesis and cannot be generalised.
A quantitative research is a systematic, structured and rigid type of research that
uses Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for data collection. Contrarily, although
a qualitative research is systematic, it is flexible and uses an unstructured instrument
for data collection. Therefore, during interviews questions can be diverted depending
on the responseof the participants (Belmontet al., 2010). Aquantitative research
uses correlative and experimental approach (Shields and Alison, 2005) which is an
integral aspect of nursingpractice because it enables the nurse tounderstand the
relationship between an independent (cause) and a dependent (effect) variable. For
instance an experiment can be conducted to identify the relationship between lung
cancer (dependent variable) andsmoking (independent variable). This agrees with
the opinion of Webb (2010) which emphasizes on the relevance of evidence-based
practiceinthenursingprofession.Incontrary,aqualitativeresearchmethodis
centred on the use of ethnographical, phenomenological approach and case study,
which is also relevant in nursing practice as it allows nurses to be familiar with the
individual experiences and needs of their patients (Kozma and Anderson, 2002).
Ethical consideration is of paramount importance in both quantitative and qualitative
researchmethod.Itisthereforenecessarytoobtainaninformedconsentfrom
research participants putting into consideration the four ethical principles which are;
autonomy,non-Nursing Research Process Components Essaymaleficence,beneficenceandjustice(BeauchampandChildress,
2009). Thisaims attreating participants withfairness andinvolving themin every
decision making process during the research; as supported by “Liberating the NHS:
No decision about me, without me” (DH, 2012). In both methods, participants are
allowedtomaketheirownchoiceandeverydatacollectedduringtheresearch
processisguardedwithstrictconfidentiality.ThisissupportedbytheHelsinki
declaration (NIH, 2012), Data Protection Act (DH, 1988) and the data protection tips
whichstatesthataresearch datashouldbekept“inalockedsafedrawer,in a
locked room, in a locked building” and all electronic devices used for a research work
should be built to a protected design (Penn state, 2014). Methods of data collection
in aquantitative researchinclude; survey,structured interview andnon-participant
observation whilea qualitativeresearch uses participantobservation, unstructured
interview and focus group discussion (Bamberger, 2000). Although interview is used
by both methods, a quantitative research uses a definite or close ended question
which requires a “yes/no” answer; whereas a qualitative research on the other hand,
uses an open ended questionwhich allows participants to discuss their feelings in
details (Lodioet., 2010). However,Raja etal. (2003) suggeststhat theuse of an
open endedquestionnaire is mosteffective as itprovides the researcherwith rich
data. Opposing this statement, Gatton and Jones (2004) is of the opinion that a close
ended questionnaire isthe best as ithelps to control therespondents, saves time
and requires fewer skills.
Rawdataina quantitativeresearchisrepresentedinanon-textual ornumerical
form; these data are analyzed statistically and presented using graph, plot boxes,
charts,figuresandtables.Onthecontrary,rawdatainqualitativeresearchare
representedin text;they areanalyzedby beinggrouped intocategories (coding).
Analyzed data’s are presented in themes and subthemes descriptively (Belmont et.,
2010).Contradictingthisopinion, UniteforSight(2010)stated thataqualitative
research can also be quantified to some extent such as, categorizing the percentage
ofparticipantsinaresearch.Boththequantitativeandqualitativemethodsuses
coding but it is important to note that while quantitative uses scores and numbers to
code, qualitative uses themes and sub themes (Monett et al., 2014). According to
Brown (2006) generalizability is the degree to which a research result can be
extendedtothegeneralpopulation.Findingsofaquantitativeresearchcanbe
generalized because of its objectivity and the use of a large sample size that can be
representative of the general population, which explains validity (reality or factuality)
and reliability (consistency) of the result (Thomas, 2005); however the use of a small
samplesize couldaffectthegeneralizability ofaquantitative research(Katsirikou
and Skiadas, 2011). In contrast, findings of a qualitative research gives insight to a
problem and does not talk about truth hence, it cannot be generalized because of its
subjectivity and the use of a relatively small sample size which is not representative
of the general population (Barbie, 2013). However, William (2008) is of the opinion
thatthefindingsofaqualitativeresearchcouldbegeneralizedifitpossesfour
characteristics; credibility, transferability, confirmability and dependability, alongside
with a large sample size.
Disseminationoffindingsisalwaystheconclusionofaresearchprocess,both
research methods disseminates findings through technology such as internet, books,Nursing Research Process Components Essay
journals and social media; to improve practice and indicate areas for
recommendation and constructive criticism (RCN, 2015). According to Wheelers and
Holloway (2010) nurses should combine both methods in practice (Triangulation) as
it leads to effectiveness of care. While qualitative research method provides nurses
withan in-depthknowledge oftheirpatient’s experiences,behaviourand attitude,
quantitative research on the other hand, allows thenurse to quantify these
experiences. For instance, a qualitative research allows the nurse to identify patients
selfcareneeds,whereasaquantitativeresearchrevealsthecauses,effectand
extentof selfcaredeficit.Thiscan belinkedwiththe DorothyOrem’sselfcare
theory (Orem’s, 1959).
In conclusion, although the quantitative and qualitative research method have their
weaknesses, they also posses their strengths; therefore none is superior to the other
and shouldboth be usedin nursing practiceto enhance effectiveness(Burke and
Larry, 2012). A qualitative research develops a theory for a quantitative research to
experiment on; while a qualitative research validates these theories hence they work
concurrently to improve practice (Barrett, 2012). Nursing research should be
globalized in order to ensure professional growth and improve health care delivery
worldwide (DH, 2008). Reflectively, writing this essay has broadened the knowledge
of the author on the importance of qualitative and quantitative research methods and
how they can be incorporatedinto nursing practice to improve professional growth
(Rolfe, 2001 Nursing Research Process Components Essay

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