Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Political History and Development of Nursing Education: Comparison of Kenya and Poland
The development and advancement of nursing education has taken different perspectives in different countries. The two countries, Kenya and Poland, have political histories that are remarkably similar and yet are very different. Modern nursing education in Kenya, for instance, had its roots in the work of missionaries in the country during colonial times. Prior to their arrival, the country relied exclusively on traditional medicine for their healing practices. The missionaries, unable to handle the burden of modern medicine alone, sought government assistance engaging more nurses from the local people with knowledge of modern medicine (Mule, 1986). The evolution of medicine in Kenya slightly differs from the one in Poland.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

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Poland’s political history is as intriguing as it is complicated. Poland did not exist as a country since 1911, and its land was shared among Austria, Russia and Germany (Sztembis, 2006, p.102). Regardless, nursing developed in the country in 1911, with Krakow hosting the University Nursing School as the first nursing education center (Sztembis, 2006). The beginning of the First World War interfered with further development of nursing schools, prompting most nurses to join the war infirmaries.

The period after the war saw the political independence of Poland and the development of nursing practices and organizations. Poland gained assistance from nursing organizations that formed during the war, and the government undertook the creation of Ministry of Health. Additional government actions, such as the formulation of policy, also enabled the advancement of nursing education. The development of this field especially improved when the parliament passed the Nursing Act in 1935 (Sztembis, 2006).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Regardless, the involvement of Poland in the Second World War hindered the development of education, prompting teaching nursing practice in secondary schools. Following the liberation of Poland from the influence of the Soviet Union, advances in nursing education took on a more liberal approach (Sztembis, 2006). With the assistance of the European Community, Poland advanced its nursing education system to its current state.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education: Comparison of Kenya and Poland
The colonial government established the first nursing training programs in Kenya. During this time, the government did not have specific ministries or institutions to handle such learning activities. Later, the Ministry of Health took over this responsibility, effectively establishing and controlling advances in nursing education. In 1972, the Republic of Kenya recognized the Public Health Nursing Course at the Medical Training Center (Mule, 1986). This course remains the top ьщіе recognized nursing courses in the Kenyan health system to date (Mule, 1986).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

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Poland’s government involvement in nursing education began before the country became independent. The government of Austria in Krakow established the first nursing school, but it only lasted for three years due to the First World War (Sztembis, 2006). Following the independence in 1918, Poland continued establishing nursing schools and courses. However, it was only in 1926 when the government formed the Ministry of Health to cater for nursing training and practice needs (Sztembis, 2006). In 1935, another milestone in nursing education took place, when parliament passed the Act on Nursing and enabled accurate curriculum definition (Sztembis, 2006). Thus, the role of the government was not only in the establishment of schools, but also through the formulation and implementation of relevant policies.

Nursing organizations played an integral role in the advancement of nursing education within these countries. For instance, in Kenya, the Nursing Council of Kenya and the National Nurses Association of Kenya participated in the formulation of the eventual syllabus implemented in the country (Mule, 1986). The organizations appeared later in the development cycle, and only facilitated education after independence, even though they played significant roles in streamlining the curriculum. In Poland, the American Red Cross and the Rockefeller Foundation initiated programs to educate women on patient care (Sztembis, 2006). Later, the formation of the Polish Nursing Association facilitated the advancement of the practice and the consequent development of a clear approach in nursing education (Sztembis, 2006).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Current System of Nursing Education: Comparison of Kenya and Poland
The Kenyan system of nursing education has undergone a significant transformation, requiring intensive review in order to understand its structure. The basic level of nursing education is either the Enrolled Community Nurse (ECN) or the Kenyan Registered Community Nurse (Mule, 1986). Under the new syllabus, the Registered Community Nurse Course takes four years for completion. The ECN course is offered in many institutions, including church hospitals that have risen due to the high demands for nursing services (Mule, 1986).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

The system also provides the pursuit of the Kenya Registered Midwifery Course, which only became available in the country after 1963 (Mule, 1986). This course forms a basis for entering higher levels, like the Kenya Registered Public Health Nursing Course (Mule, 1986). This course can be regarded as a higher diploma or degree, as it requires candidates to have more than five years of experience in nursing (Mule, 1986). At this level, the nurse has options to enter specialized nursing courses, which include the Kenya Enrolled and Registered Psychiatric Nursing (KERPN) (Mule, 1986). Administration courses form the highest level of nursing education in Kenya. They are regarded as equivalents of Bachelor of Science degree from universities in the USA, in terms of qualification and professional responsibilities (Mule, 1986).

The system in Poland has undergone gradual revisions and upgrading, incorporating the requirements of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the EU standards in nursing education (Sztembis, 2006). The system has a basic licentiate course, which lasts three years and leads to the acquisition of a bachelor’s degree (Sztembis, 2006). The university-based nursing education curriculums were only introduced in Poland for the first time in the 1970s. Regardless, people that graduated in the previous 2.5-year secondary nursing education got opportunities to join university education in pursuit of bachelor’s degree (Sztembis, 2006).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

The Polish system also allows earning a post-basic education for nurses. The basic education, however, sufficiently equips the student with medical science knowledge, social knowledge and nursing science knowledge (Sztembis, 2006). Their knowledge also extends to community services, as well as patient assistance in any situation (Sztembis, 2006).

Post-Graduate (Masters) Education: Comparison of Kenya and Poland
According to Mule (1986), Kenya does not seem to have a local option for post-graduate education. The system encourages to pursue the Kenya Registered Public Health Nursing Course, which is technically the highest level one may achieve (Mule, 1986). It remains unclear whether nurses in Kenya seek Master’s degree in other countries. However, based on the stipulation of most premises within the study, it is clear that post-graduate education is not a part of the curriculum. Students in the medical training center, where the KRPH Nursing course is offered (Mule, 1986), conduct the research. Master’s students in other countries would conduct such research. Evidently, this is the highest level the country provides to its students.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Poland, on the other hand, offers post-education training for nurses that are already in practice. After graduation, nurses can enroll in masters courses that take two years for completion (Sztembis, 2006). Under the old system, postgraduate courses took four years after nursing and secondary school. This post-basic education expands the capabilities of Registered Nurses in initiating and supporting health of the local community as well as participating in research (Sztembis, 2006). Students in the Medical Training Center execute these functions in Kenya, which brings out the contrast in the two systems. However, the country does not offer the option to earn PhD in nursing. Regardless, nurses may take PhDs courses in related fields to enhance their qualifications within the Polish system (Sztembis, 2006).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Reflections on Nursing Education in Kenya and Poland
A review of the nursing education systems in Kenya and Poland enables identifying features that one may find surprising within the context. The most surprising thing I discovered about Kenya was the absence of specific degree and master programs to cater the needs of the nursing curriculum. After analyzing the curriculum, it seems that training colleges are the only option in pursuing nursing education in the country (Mule, 1986). In addition, people that wish to continue their studies have to go to other countries in order to achieve a higher degree. Even though I was aware that Kenya is a part of developing world, I expected it to have a more comprehensive system than it currently has.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Another unexpected fact I learned from the Polish curriculum was the nature of the old system. I have never envisioned a situation whereby nursing is taught in secondary schools to cater for the deficiencies in the rest of the system. The old system in Poland offered an option of five years of nursing secondary schools (Sztembis, 2006). This option seems illogical, considering the age and knowledge capacity of children in secondary schools. The implication of such system is the fact that the majority of health care providers are in their teens or early twenties. I was, consequently, relieved to learn that this system was scrapped in favor of an alternative more comprehensive approach.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

The Nursing Education Standards emphasize continuing education for nurses. In other words, an initial degree and training does not constitute as adequate grounds for continuing as a nurse practitioner. More education is needed. Thus, the education standards underscore continuing education in the form of online learning and intensive courses. This impacts the curriculum and evaluation of education immensely. In the first place, the continuing education initiatives demand creative and untraditional material and methods. The curriculum of standard textbooks and lectures might not fit with the online environment, for example. A nurse might need to learn therapeutic skills a few years into his or her profession but cannot attend a traditional onsite classroom. Thus, the online context, provides a convenient means for continuing education. However, it cannot facilitate all of the curriculum used by most health educators, and therefore demands creativity and innovation.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay


In the second place, the documents from the nursing standards website reveal the effect of continuing education on evaluation. Since education is an ongoing process that can begin later in a nursing career, the assessments involve more flexibility and a large scope. It seems that a “standard” student for such a program does not appear quite as typically as it used to. So evaluators must now attend not only to students in different positions in life but those with varying experience and former training. A nurse having served twenty years might have undergone and entirely different training program than the nurse two years out of school. Furthermore, the online provisions require the evaluator to assess a new style of teaching and learning. In short, the documents in the nursing education standards reflect an emphasis on continuing education. This impacts curriculum and evaluation by posing a new challenge that demands creativity, innovation, and rigorous thought.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

In an extremely busy and interconnected world, students expect technology to satisfy their needs quickly, be feasible and customized to meet their requirements. According to De Veer, Fleuren, Bekkema, & Francke (2011), technology assists in delivering these fulfillments by putting power in the students’ hands. The significances of technology are very obvious in the field of nursing, nurses are only involved in when there is a need, and patients can feel empowered and remain where they are comfortable (De Veer, Fleuren, Bekkema, & Francke, 2011). It is the reduction of pressure on nursing students and health services where technology reveals its importance. In this regard, this paper discusses technology in nursing education.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

According to Hall and Ross-Kerr (2006) teaching is an interactive process that promotes learning. Generally, teaching and learning begin when a person identifies a need for knowing or acquiring an ability to do something. A nurse, who embodies the role of a teacher provides information that prompts the client to engage in activities that lead to desired change. Teaching is most effective when it responds to the learner’s needs (Potter, Perry, Ross-Kerry, & Wood, 2006, p. 318). In this paper I will include an assessment of the learner, teacher, and resources with a teaching plan. I will provide evidence of implementation along with discussion of teaching material used in the presentation, including the rationale for its use.
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Technology has been deployed in nursing education to facilitate distance learning. Distance learning programs can either deploy synchronous or asynchronous technology (Overstreet, 2008). Synchronous technology is preferable where students utilize archived presentations, because it is hard to schedule times where all students can be in attendance at specific locations. According to Overstreet (2008), fewer nursing education programs are deploying synchronous technology for distance learning. Examples of synchronous deployment of technology include video-conferencing that facilitates live presentation to be sent into and out of a classroom. This allows nursing students who are not present at the place during presentation to participate in the learning process. With video-conferencing via Interactive Video Network (IVN) and BioTerrorsim Wide Area Network (BTWAN) and web-conferencing applications being available, fewer education programs presently utilize video conferencing as part of nursing education (De Veer, Fleuren, Bekkema, & Francke, 2011).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay  Video streaming, another example of synchronous utilization of technology, enables nursing student to view videos as it downloads rather than waiting until the whole file is downloaded to a computer. According to Russell (2008), video-streaming permits students to only view a video conference, but not participating, because it streams one-way.

In asynchronous distance learning, students access the course material on their own time through partially web-based or fully online course (White, Allen, Goodwin, Breckinridge, Dowell, & Garvy, 2009). In the survey conducted by Vogt, Schaffner, Ribar, & Chavez (2010), almost all education programs utilized asynchronous distance learning technology like Jansibar, E-College, Wimba and Moodle. The utilization of these technologies permits nursing students to be updated about what is or what is not completed. About 60% of nursing education programs utilizing asynchronous technology has discussion board (White, Allen, Goodwin, Breckinridge, Dowell, & Garvy, 2009).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Clinical training technologies have also been deployed in nursing education. All education programs use low fidelity simulations and about 82% showed that they use some form of medium to high fidelity simulators. Students acquire ability and confidence in a safe learning environment (De Veer, Fleuren, Bekkema, & Francke, 2011). According to White et al. (2009), all education programs that have utilized simulators showed that the technology was very efficient.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

In relation to the level of utilization, nursing education programs deploy high levels of technology in segments requiring performance assessment and nursing practice (De Veer, Fleuren, Bekkema, & Francke, 2011). On the other hand, education programs deploy low end technology in areas of investigative research and student delivered content. Successful integration of technology in nursing education programs requires both faculty and student readiness. White et al. (2009) found out that half of nursing education programs were perceived to have low percentage of trained faculty. Almost half of all nursing education programs consistently have students using PowerPoint, e-mail, classroom response systems, computer adaptive testing and online discussion boards. The utilization of these technologies by nursing students shows their readiness in using new technologies.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

Nursing education programs have showed that technology can be efficiently utilized. Most education programs, according to De Veer, Fleuren, Bekkema, & Francke (2011), show the desire to use technologies, which increase the number students to be trained. Compared to technologies, video-streaming is widely used, whereas video-conferencing seems to be the least used.

A research conducted by Vogt, Schaffner, Ribar, & Chavez (2010) showed that inadequate funds and lack of time to train the nursing faculty were the main hindrances to attaining the objectives of deploying technology in nursing education. Other hindrances to the deployment of technology are inadequate resources and student readiness for special programs.Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

A crucial initiative to improving the deployment of technology in nursing education will be to identify technologies that are most efficient for limited funding (Overstreet, 2008). Nursing faculties can best accomplish this by building on the present technologies and on a program-by-program basis. In addition, methods that are efficient in terms of time for training students and faculty on the deployment of technologies need to be researched. The biggest hindrance towards greater dependence on technology in nursing education is training, funding and staff support (Russell, 2008).Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

In conclusion, the significance of technology are very obvious, nurses are only involved in when there is a need, patients can feel empowered and remain where they are comfortable. Therefore, technology has been deployed in nursing education to facilitate distance learning. Distance learning can either deploy synchronous or asynchronous technology. Moreover, in asynchronous distance learning, students access the course material on their own time through partially web-based or fully online course. Clinical training technologies have also been deployed in nursing education. Nursing education programs deploy high levels of technology in segments requiring performance assessment and nursing practice. Most education programs show the desire to use technologies, which increase the number students to be trained. Nursing Education Paper Example Essay

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