Heath: Describe effective methods you used in identifying and narrowing down to just one of the topics to further research for your Final Paper.
 It was not hard for me to pick a topic; I knew that I wanted to write about the LACK OF EDUCATION. I found this to be the perfect topic for me because had of two reasons. The first is because I just bought a house in the school area where I wanted my son to go. It was one of the top areas and I had no other way to get him the best education unless we were zoned for this school zone. The second reason is because, I have been recently thinking about teaching grade school once I retire from the military. There is a program called Troops to Teachers and I have been in touch with the P.O.C. for this area. I want to make a difference in the youth of tomorrow that may not have all the resources they might need.
Explain three ways you can critically analyze sources to determine if they are scholarly.
 The best way to determine if a source is scholarly is first look at where the article is coming from. Is it coming from a library or website? Knowing where your information is coming from is particularly important; just because it is on the internet does not make it true Wikipedia is a prime example of that. Second, Ashford makes research quite easy and even easier to find scholarly sources. Once you have your search, select “Limit to Scholarly / Peer Reviewed” and it takes all the guess work out of knowing. Lastly, knowing how to use the different search tools; Ashford has many different databases and being able to use the correct one will turn up the best articles.
Summarize information from at least two scholarly journal articles from the Ashford University Library that will support your claims for your chosen topic.
As Strong as the Weakest Link: Urban High School Dropout
This source talks about how public and private schools are failing the youth of America. In a lot of smaller towns or large urban areas you will find that school is just lacking. Many of the kids fall behind because of the lack of books, teachers, or funding. “This failure is seen in America’s public inner-city schools where the numbers of students graduating from high school vs. the number of students dropping out of high school are, at best, one to one. A disproportionate number of these students are Black and Hispanic. Some studies show rates as high as 47% for Hispanics and 61% for Blacks while Hispanics make up only 13% of the U.S. population and Blacks make up 12% of the total population Similar statistics are seen in the City School District of Rochester, New York, where approximately 80% of the dropouts within the City are Black and/or Hispanic. It becomes apparent that the social goal of educational equity for all students is not being met” (Campbell, 2003). This source goes on to talk about how much of the student that are dropping out are playing into social stereotypes and will remain in poverty, never making anything and will become trapped in the never-ending cycle.
Public Schools, Private Dollars: An Education Arms Race
This source talks about how private dollars make schools “better” or being able to “offer” a better education to those students that attend their schools. The article talks about how those who run a public school and receive private money (from wealth parents whose children attend) are able to provide more immediate solutions for their funding problems then schools that are public and funded by the government only. “If a principal needs more textbooks, funds an art program, or needs microscopes, private money can be used. In other words, unlike public funding provided by the government, private money is rarely, if ever, earmarked for specific programs or tied up in school district bureaucracies. Public school families donate because they want to support their public schools. They also donate because these are tax-deductible charitable gifts. Despite these obvious benefits to the schools that receive private money widens the gap between rich and poor. It exacerbates inequalities in financing. It is philanthropy in the service of conferring advantage on the already well-off. The schools that are most likely to receive private funding are also the schools that are most likely to serve white and upper- or middle-class children” (Kitzmiller, 2019). The students that attend these schools are given a “better” chance at everything and it shows.
Explain why scholarly sources should be used to support your writing on the selected topic.
 Scholarly sources should be used to support any research because it gives your paper something or someone backing it/ substance and credibility are key. When doing research having the source come from the Ashford library gives the paper information that readers can trust.
References
Campbell, L. (2003). As Strong as the Weakest Link: Urban High School Dropout. High School Journal, 87(2), 16. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1353/hsj.2003.0021 (Links to an external site.)
Kitzmiller, E. M. (2019). Public Schools, Private Dollars: An Education Arms Race. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 99(1), 14.
Public Schools Private Dollars An Education Arms Race.pdf

Keith:The global societal issue that I would consider to research further for my final paper would be “Rise of Artificial Intelligence”. I am very much a “car guy” so specifically I would like to focus on A.I technology as it is utilized in vehicles. This would include anywhere from collision avoidance to fully autonomous vehicles. My research question at this time would be, “What are the effects of utilizing artificial technology in vehicles?”.
The effective methods I used to determine the topic to research for my final paper started with reviewing what I was interested in learning more about. If the topic is not something with which you have some interest in, it will make creating the paper and the study for it a more difficult task. The lack of passion will also likely translate into the final written work. Once selecting a few interesting ideas, I researched them in the student library to see how many resources came back for both sides of the topics I was interested in. This greatly helped to narrow down the topic of choice as since it will be an argumentative essay, I will want solid arguments for both sides of the topic. I also used the CRAAP test (Ashford University Library, 2017) to look for valid sources online that I might use for the argumentative essay.
The three ways to critically analyze sources to determine they are scholarly would be where they are sourced from, whether the information is verifiable, and whether it is peer reviewed and comes from an expert in that field. Sourcing material from the AU library while selecting to search scholarly and peer-reviewed sources is one way to ensure you are getting the right information. Checking the sourced works references to ensure reliability of information for their work is also a way to ensure the correct information is being acquired. Looking up the writer of the material for credentials, and that the writer is well studied in the information you are sourcing will help to ensure the material is of high quality.
For the argument of artificial intelligence in vehicles, I have chosen two articles with different sides as to whether vehicles using A.I. are safe. Gabor Kiss (2019) in her article of The Danger of Using Artificial Intelligence in Development of Autonomous Vehicles reviews the issues that can occur with people taking advantage of or sabotaging autonomous vehicles. In one instance referenced, while we have autonomous vehicles and human drivers on the road, human drivers might take advantage of autonomous vehicles, knowing how they might react in situations. If someone is trying to change lanes on a busy highway, seeing that there is an autonomous vehicle next to them, by slowly cutting into the lane they can force the autonomous vehicle to slow down and allow the driver to move over where a human often might not. This could cause greater traffic constraints with people rushing to work and cutting in and out of traffic being allowed due to slowing down autonomous vehicles. Another instance would be where people deliberately cause traffic or accidents to autonomous vehicles by altering road signs or lanes that might be seen as road construction changes to the autonomous vehicle A.I.
A second article which talks more on the pro side of A.I. use in vehicles covers the avoidance systems being used in vehicles to avoid collisions in cars. In Vehicle Action Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence, Meng et al (2018) refer to the six million car collisions a year in the U.S. of which 37,000 people die from. The use and increase in A.I. in avoidance technology such as blind side assistance and adaptive cruise control, to change the current awareness of a .5 second notice of a potential accident to 2 seconds. This increase in A.I. technology can give much needed time for someone to react to a potential accident and is believed to reduce up to 7,000 of those deaths annually.
Scholarly sources should be used to support your writing for an argumentative essay, since they give validity to your work from experts in that particular field of study. Without this support to a paper, it is likely just an opinion without facts of your take on a subject. It is also likely peer reviewed so that any issues with the sourced work would have already been determined. To come up with your own thoughts on an argumentative societal issue, it is best to have facts from both sides of the issue so that someone reading it might gain insight as to how you came to your conclusion.
References
Ashford University Library. (2017, November). What is craap [PDF file]. https://content.bridgepointeducation.com/curriculum/file/f8a1ef48-2a27-4450-b3d0-242d91015f8d/1/CRAAP%20accessible.pdf (Links to an external site.)
Kiss, G. (2019). The danger of using artificial intelligence in development of autonomous vehicles. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, 17(4), 716–722. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.7906/indecs.17.4.3 (Links to an external site.)
Meng, K., Shi, C., & Meng, Y. (2018). Vehicle action prediction using artificial intelligence. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA), Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA), 2018 17th IEEE International Conference on, ICMLA, 1231–1236. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1109/ICMLA.2018.00200
The danger of using AI in autonomous vehicles.pdf

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