Lyme Disease Essay Paper

A 38-year-old male had a 3-week history of fatigue and lethargy with intermittent complaints of headache, fever, chills, myalgia, and arthralgia. According to the history, the patient’s symptoms began shortly after a camping vacation. He recalled a bug bite and rash on his thigh immediately after the trip. The following studies were ordered:

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Studies Results Lyme disease test,  Elevated IgM antibody titers against Borrelia burgdorferi (normal: low) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),  30 mm/hour (normal: ≤15 mm/hour) Aspartate aminotransferase (AST),  32 units/L (normal: 8-20 units/L) Hemoglobin (Hgb),  12 g/dL (normal: 14-18 g/dL) Hematocrit (Hct),  36% (normal: 42%-52%) Rheumatoid factor (RF),  Negative (normal: negative) Antinuclear antibodies (ANA),  Negative (normal: negative) Lyme Disease Essay Paper

Diagnostic Analysis

Based on the patient’s history of camping in the woods and an insect bite and rash on the thigh, Lyme disease was suspected. Early in the course of this disease, testing for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies against B. burgdorferi is the most helpful in diagnosing Lyme disease. An elevated ESR, increased AST levels, and mild anemia are frequently seen early in this disease. RF and ANA abnormalities are usually absent.

Critical Thinking Questions

1. What is the cardinal sign of Lyme disease? (always on the boards)

2. At what stages of Lyme disease are the IgG and IgM antibodies elevated?

3. Why was the ESR elevated?

4. What is the Therapeutic goal for Lyme Disease and what is the recommended treatment.

Lyme disease is a fairly common disease that goes misdiagnosed in many cases. There are many misconceptions about the disease. The disease accounts for ninety percent of infectious diseases in the United States from 1980 to 1998, with about 112,000 cases have been reported from the forty-nine states.Lyme Disease Essay Paper The only state that has not reported a case federally is Montana. Because not everyone reports the cases, the count would most likely be thirteen to fifteen times higher. One study estimates the true count of Lyme disease cases to be about one and a half to two million.
Lyme disease is a multi-system bacterial infection caused by a spirochete called the Borrelia burgdoferi. It was named after the man who discovered it, Willy Burgdoferi, PhD. A spirochete can be either a parasitic or free-living bacteria. It can cause diseases with humans and animals. Recent research has proven that this type of bacteria that causes Lyme disease has been in the United States for at least one hundred years.
Both humans as well as animals can become infected with Lyme disease. No one ever builds up immunity to this disease. Therefore, the subject may be infected more than once and become progressively sicker.
Lyme disease is spread by the bite of a tick. The tick has four different life stages that it goes through. The first stage is the egg, the second the larva, the third the nymph, and the final stage is the adult stage. The three last stages are called the “active” stages. It is during these stages that the tick needs a blood meal. Ticks that carry Lyme disease are able to transmit it for the rest of their life, giving it to several hosts. However, adult ticks do not pass on the bacteria to their offspring.
Some transmitters of Lyme disease in North America are the Western black-legged tick (Ixodes) (in the West), and the black-legged tick in the rest of the country.

Lyme disease is an illness that is caused by a spirochete bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. Ixodes dammini, which is the deer tick, is located in the northwest and Midwest region of the united states, are commonly known to infect humans.Lyme Disease Essay Paper They are found in grassy areas (including lawns), and in brushy, shrubby and woodland sites, even on warm winter days. They prefer areas where some moisture is present. The tick has three life stages: larva, nymph and adult. The nymphal stage appears to be responsible for most of Lyme disease cases. In the larval stage and the nymphal stage the ticks attach to a variety of small mammals, but prefer the white-tailed mouse, the main reservoir of Lyme disease. The adult tick prefers to feed on the white-tailed deer (hins the name deer tick). Each stage takes a single blood meal. They feed on a variety of warm-blooded animals including humans, dogs, cats, cows and horses. The entire life cycle requires three separate hosts and takes about two years to complete. The bite is painless so most victims don’t know they have been bitten.

Symptoms

In about 50% of the cases a characteristic rash or lesion called Erythema margins is seen. It begins a few hours to a few weeks after the bite of an infected tick. The rash generally looks like an expanded red ring. It is often described as looking like a bull’s eye with alternating light and dark rings. However, it can vary from a reddish blotchy appearance to red throughout. And it also can be confused with poison ivy, spider or insect bite of ringworm. At the same time that the rash develops, flu-like symptoms may occur with headache, sore throat, stiff neck, fever, muscle aches, fatigue and generally malaise. Some people develop the flu-like illness without getting a rash.Lyme Disease Essay Paper

If ignored, the early symptoms may disappear but more serious problems can develop months to years later. The later symptoms of Lyme disease can be quite severe and chronic. Muscle pain, and arthritis, usually in the large joints, neurological symptoms include meningitis, numbness, tingling,

Although most people don’t realize it, one of the most weakening diseases of the world can often be found crawling around in the shrubs and tall grasses of a person’s backyard .It does not mean that only dirty yards have this disease but it is found in every Americans backyard. The disease is called Lyme disease. Now I will be elaborating on the disease.

Every disease has a causative agent. This agent is a harmful bacterium that causes the disease. The causative agent for this disease is the bacteria Borrelia burgdoferi.Lyme Disease Essay Paper

A disease is transmitted in one way or the other. Lyme disease is transmitted through a vector. The vector of the disease is an infected deer tick. The deer tick has to bite a person to spread the disease. When a deer tick bites a person (sucks blood), the Borrelia burgdoferi bacteria is transmitted into the persons body.

This disease has many symptoms. These symptoms are similar or same to many other illnesses. That is the reason why many doctors get confused when they were researching this disease. There are three stages of symptoms for the disease. In the first stage, the Erythema Migrans, a bull’s eye rash might appear on the bitten area. In the second stage, the Disseminated Lyme Disease, you may experience a fever, sore throat, fatigue, headache, stiff neck, muscle ache, and general malaise. In the third stage, the Chronic Lyme Disease, you may experience aching joints.

All diseases focus on an organ or parts of the body. Lyme disease focuses on the joints. This will cause joint damage and go on to Lyme Arthritis. The disease also focuses on the nerves. This can cause mental problems and go on to Tics. It also focuses on the heart. This will slow down a person’s heartbeat.Lyme Disease Essay Paper

A person can prevent the disease. And, there are many ways to do this. One is to put on insect repellent with Deet. Another is to wear long sleeves and long pants. Also, tuck your pants in socks. And, wear a hat. Finally, stay away from wooded areas.

Every disease should have a treatment. Lyme disease has many treatments. Antibiotic drugs such as doxycline, amoxicillin, penicillin, and erythromycin are treatments for Lyme disease. There is a new vaccine for the disease. Its name is LYMErix TM.

Diseases lie in a large geographical content. Lyme disease is mostly found in the United States of America and Europe.Lyme Disease Essay Paper

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