Family planning can be traditional or modern. The modern methods include the barrier methods which involve the use of condoms (both male and female), diaphragm and cervical caps. It works by preventing spermatozoa from coming into contact with the ovum. The hormonal include the use of combined oral pills, progestin only pills. They are synthetic steroids hormones containing oestrogen and progesterone. They work by suppressing follicle stimulating hormones and lutenising hormones thereby in habiting ovulation.
Natural methods include billing ovulation method, basal body temperature, calendar, method and symptothermal. Surgical methods are the male (vasectomy) and female sterilization.
The need to control fertility has been identified even during the early time and the idea of controlling the family is as old as mankind.
In modern times, the decision of when or even whether to have children is a basic human right. The international conference on population and development held in Cario, Egypt in September 1994, clearly endorsed this right. This right is with benefits which include that family planning programme service, helps people to achieve, the number of children they desire reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI), reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and improve the health of women and children (Hatcher and Kowah, 2000). Current contraceptive use is higher among women than men. 69% of all women using a modern method obtained contraceptive service from the public sources, 21% from other sources ( Action and Omeara, 1997). Before the advent of scientific method of family planning, our fore-fathers were aware of the need for child spacing but traditional methods were used such as prolonged breastfeeding, use of lime juice, salt, waist band and blue powder (Dalsimer, Piotrow and Dumm 1985).Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
In early 1350 BC, various methods of birth control were introduced which condom was one of them. Condom seemed to be one of the most favourable contraceptives that was used as far back as 1350BC. It is made of a linen sheath contraceptive device, covering the penis, worn during coitus (Barbara 1999). In 18th century, the penile sheath were given the name “condom” and popularized as a means of protection from veneral disease and numerous bastards offspring (Foege, 1985).
Condoms are disposable and are available indifferent sizes, shapes, colours and quality of latex usually in pre-lubricated packs. Some lubricants contains spermicide and additional stimulatory appendages which have been added to increase the popularity of the method (Jones 2001)
Condoms have the following advantages over other contraceptive methods because it reduces the transmission of sexually transmitted infections including (HIV) in addition to its role in preventing unwanted pregnancies, it is sage, easy and effective and it is relatively cheap (Hatcher and Warner, 1992). The disadvantages include: breaking of the condom during sexual act and interruption of intercourse which may constitute a draw back for some couples. The concurrent use of condoms with another method of family planning such as pills are becoming more popular and it is known as “Double dutch method” (Mindel and Estcourt 2000).Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Recent surveys of contraceptive use among married couples worldwide indicate that condom rank near the bottom among contraceptive methods used by married couples. The pill was the method most widely used among women (74%), IUCD (54%), injectable (58%) female sterilization (58%) and followed by condom (67%) among men. The most widely known methods were the pill (61%) and condom (51%). (Acton and Omerara (1998).
However, the Nigerian society with her multi various beliefs, customs, religious and traditional practices is still showing unconcern attitude to this awareness and enlightenment exercise. Unlike the European countries for instance UK, (Welling, 1994) found out that over 25% of women and 36% of men had used condoms in the previous years. This is clear opposite in Nigeria where only 11% for IUCD, 7% injectable, 0% for sterilization male and 1% female, condom 1% (Elzanaty 2000).
The researcher observed that many women turned out for family planning while men show no interest even with fact that condom are given free of charge in the family planning centers. It is on this ground that the researcher seeks to find out the level of acceptance and use of condom by married men in Ituk Mbang Uruan L.G.A., Akwa Ibom State.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of profound significant in the following areas:
Men will have acquired adequate knowledge about the benefits of condom.
The research will help for further studies in the subject matter.
It will make men and women to have sex without fear of contracting STIS.
Men will have a positive behaviour towards the use of condom, as not only family planning method but protective device against STIS.
It will assist the health workers to order the contents of their education about condom use.
1.3 PURPOSE / OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the acceptability and use of condom by married men in Ituk Mbang, Uruan L.G.A., Akwa Ibom State.
To determine the influence of culture towards the use of condom by married men.
To determine the influence of education on the use of condom by married man.
To determine the influence of gender roles on the use of condom by married men.
To determine the influence of religion on the use of condom by married men in Ituk Mbang.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Acceptance: To believe or use an idea.
Contraceptive: An agent used to prevent conception e.g. condom cap that occludes the cervix.
Family Planning: The arrangement, spacing and limitation of the children in a family.
Fertility: State or condition of being able to produce much.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Does level of education influence condom use by married men in Ituk Mbang.
Does culture of the society influence condom use among married men in Ituk Mbang.
Does religion create a barrier to the use of condom by men in Ituk Mbang.
Does gender roles affect acceptance and use of condom of married men in Ituk Mbang
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/DELIMITATION
The study is delimited to all married men in Ituk Mbang in Uruan L.G.A., Akwa Ibom State.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Due to limited time frame and financial constraints, the study will be limited to Ituk Mbang, Uruan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is observed that despite campaign enlightenment programme made by Government and non-governmental organisation (NGO’s) to synthesize the public on the need for family planning, there are still a lot of men who prefer to take the risk of having sex without using condoms, even when they don’t expect pregnancy.
Personal interaction with some men in Ituk Mbang poses that married men use condom when they have sex with partners other than their wives, but refuse to use it when having sex with their wives, which result in unwanted pregnancy.
In Nigeria, less than 20% of married men of reproductive age use contraceptive while only 1% of condom user was recorded in 2000 (Hatcher and Kowal, 2000). This is why researcher wants to find out the level of acceptance and use of condom by married men in Ituk Mbang, Uruan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
Because the contraceptive methods most effective in preventing pregnancy and those most protective against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, are not the same, experts in reproductive health care now recommend that couples who wish to minimize both risks use two methods—an effective nonbarrier contraceptive such as the pill or the IUD and a barrier method, usually the condom.1 The decision by a couple to use contraceptives for both purposes necessarily involves both partners, since most methods that are highly effective against pregnancy are female-controlled and the method most commonly used against STD infection is male-controlled.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Few published national data exist on the combined use of barrier and nonbarrier methods. Recently, however, several empirical studies have examined contraceptive use related to the dual goals of averting pregnancy and preventing STDs.2 A local study from Baltimore,3 for example, demonstrated considerable dual use among black women, with the highest rates among adolescents and users of oral contraceptives. Demographic surveys of contraceptive use in the United States typically have collected and reported data only on use of single methods; when more than one method is described by a respondent, the one reported by the investigator is usually the method that most effectively prevents pregnancy.4 Likewise, studies of HIV and STD risk often do not include data on contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention.
Of all age-groups, adolescents have the highest risk of infection with STDs5 and the largest share of unintended pregnancies in the United States.6 Several studies7 have demonstrated that, despite their increased risk of STD infection, adolescents who engage in sexual risk behaviors (e.g., those having multiple partners) are less likely to use condoms. Problem behavior theory8 postulates that adolescent risk behaviors (e.g., drug use, delinquency, early sexual involvement and having sex with multiple partners) often occur as part of a syndrome, with risk-taking in one area correlated with that in other areas. For example, adolescents who engage in early drug use appear to be more likely than those who do not to engage in early sexual behavior, and vice versa.9 This covariation presumably reflects underlying personality characteristics such as unconventionality,10 risk-taking11 or sensation-seeking.12
Early age at initiation of sexual intercourse may be a marker for adolescent psychosocial risk13 and has been associated with adult sexual risk behaviors and risk for STDs.14 An extension of problem behavior theory has looked at psychosocial protective factors.15 Protective factors, including a positive orientation to health, positive relationships with adults and such behaviors as attending church and using seat belts, show a negative correlation with adolescent risk behaviors, although these associations are not as strong as the correlations between risk behaviors.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
This study, which is based on data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) supplement to the 1992 National Health Interview Study (NHIS), examines use of condoms with other contraceptives among youths aged 14-22 years.16 We explore two questions: What is the prevalence of combined use by age and gender among adolescents and what are the demographic and behavioral determinants of combined use and use of condoms alone among adolescents? In short, how do sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors, healthy behaviors and other potentially protective factors influence the use of condoms, either alone or with other contraceptives?
The NHIS is an annual household interview survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States.17 The NHIS, which oversamples minority families, uses a complex weighted design to obtain data representative of the U.S. population. The 1992 survey enumerated all youths aged 12-21 from sampled households, including those who were married and those who no longer lived in the household. The 1992 YRBS, conducted as a follow-back survey to the NHIS, randomly selected youths from this list, oversampling those who were out of school. A weighting factor was applied to each YRBS record to adjust for nonresponse and oversampling.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Youths were surveyed between April 1992 and March 1993, approximately four months after the initial household survey. To allay adolescents’ concerns about confidentiality during in-home interviews, data were collected using an innovative audiocassette technology.18 Adolescents listened to the questionnaire using headphones and recorded their responses on an answer sheet that contained only numbers (for questions) and letters (for responses).
Of the 13,789 selected youths who were 12-21 at the time of the core survey, 10,645 (77%) were located and agreed to be interviewed. (Of the youths who were 21 years of age at the time of the core NHIS survey, 126 were 22 at the time of follow-up.) Youths aged 12-13 (N=2,195) were not asked about their sexual activity and were excluded from this analysis. Also excluded were young men and women who reported ever having been married (N=1,187), those who said they had never had sexual intercourse (N=2,906) and those for whom data on condom and contraceptive use were missing (N=97). This left 4,260 never-married adolescents aged 14-22 who had ever had sexual intercourse.
We used cross-tabulations and logistic regression to identify predictors of condom use at last intercourse. Potential predictors included demographic variables (age, race and ethnicity, family income and poverty status), sexual behavior variables (age at first coitus, use of alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse, lifetime number of sexual partners and number of sexual partners in the previous three months), other risk behaviors (ever having tried tobacco, ever having tried marijuana, ever having tried cocaine or any other illicit drug, having had five or more drinks in a row on one or more occasions in the previous 30 days, having carried a weapon one or more days in the previous 30 days and having been in a fight one or more times in the previous 12 months), healthy behaviors (frequency of exercise and seat belt use) and potentially protective factors (having received HIV education in school and having talked about HIV with parents or other adult relatives). All data were reported by the youths themselves, except for family income, marital status and race and ethnicity, which were reported by the adult who completed the core NHIS interview.
Each sexual risk behavior variable was examined as a separate item. A scale for other risk behaviors was constructed by combining responses to the six individual items; the scale varied from zero to six, with zero indicating participation in none of the behaviors and six indicating participation in all of them. Cronbach’s alpha for the scale was 0.58 for women and 0.61 for men, indicating a moderate level of internal consistency. When a scale including both sexual and nonsexual risks was constructed, the value for Cronbach’s alpha was similar.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
We created a measure of the use of condoms and other contraceptives at last intercourse from responses to two questions, one that asked what method had been used to prevent pregnancy and a second that asked if the respondent had used a condom. The measure included the following categories—use of condoms with the pill, use of the pill alone, use of condoms alone, use of withdrawal, use of other methods and use of no method. No other combination (i.e., condoms with other methods) was common enough to provide stable estimates.
We followed two approaches in analyzing the data. First, we examined cross-tabulations of potential predictors and the created measure of condom and contraceptive use. In this part of the analysis, the respondents who reported having used condoms with withdrawal or condoms with “other” methods were classified as having used withdrawal or other methods. However, these respondents were excluded from the logistic regression analyses because use of such combinations was too rare to be examined analytically.
We stratified the remaining sample into respondents who had used the pill and those who had not. We used logistic regression to estimate the influence of each independent variable on use of condoms in each group. Separate analyses were conducted for young men and young women. We performed the regression analyses using SUDAAN software to account for the complex, weighted sampling design.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
The most common methods used by young women at last intercourse to prevent pregnancy were the condom and the pill (37% and 31%, respectively), followed by withdrawal (13%) and other methods (3%). Sixteen percent reported using no method for contraception.
While 37% of young women reported that they had used a condom at last intercourse to prevent pregnancy, a total of 44% said they had used a condom. Most of the additional women had used a condom in combination with another method. Dual use was most common among women who had used the pill at last intercourse (21%), followed by 8% of women who had used “other” methods and 6% of women who had relied on withdrawal; in addition, 4% of women who had used no method for pregnancy prevention had used a condom.
Among young men, 52% had used a condom at last intercourse to prevent pregnancy and 18% had relied on pill use by their partner, while 12% had relied on withdrawal and 3% had used another method; 16% had used no method. While 52% said they had relied on a condom to prevent pregnancy, a total of 58% reported having used a condom. Most of the additional men had used a condom in conjunction with another method. Dual use was most common among young men whose partner was using the pill (25%), followed by men who used other methods (14%) and those who relied on withdrawal (9%); 5% of young men who had used no method to prevent pregnancy also reported using a condom at last intercourse.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Table 1 presents descriptive data on contraceptive and condom use among young women by demographic factors, sexual risk behaviors and potentially protective factors. Women’s method choices were strongly influenced by age. Use of the pill alone rose sharply with age, while use of the condom alone declined. Use of condoms with the pill rose from 2% among those aged 14-15 to 10% among those aged 21-22. Black women had the highest rate and Hispanic women the lowest rate of dual condom-pill use. Black women also had a higher rate of condom use alone. Family income was not strongly associated with dual condom and pill use or with use of condoms alone, although women whose annual family income was below poverty level were more likely to combine condom use and pill use (not shown).Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
As the age at initiation of sexual activity increased, combined use of condoms with the pill and use of condoms alone rose, while use of no method declined. When compared with women who had had no partners or two or more partners in the previous three months, those who had had one partner were more likely to have combined condom and pill use and to have used the pill alone. Combined use was higher among women with 2-4 lifetime partners than among those with one partner or with five or more partners. Use of drugs or alcohol at last intercourse had little relation to the use of condoms, either alone or in combination with the pill (not shown).Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
The median risk behavior score was two for females; 34% had a score of 0-1, and 8% had a score of 5-6. The risk behavior score and most individual risk behaviors (not shown) were negatively associated with use of condoms, alone or with the pill, while use of no method increased as the risk behavior score rose.
Several of the potentially protective factors examined appeared to influence method use. Use of condoms (alone or with the pill) was higher among young women who always used seat belts than among those who rarely or never did so. Exposure to HIV education was associated with increased use of condoms alone but not with dual use of condoms and the pill. Talking with parents or other adults in the family increased dual use but not use of condoms alone. The frequency of exercise (data not shown) had no relationship to use of any method.
Table 2 (page 263) presents data reported by young men on condom use and on contraceptive use by their partner at last sexual intercourse. As was the case with young women, reliance on the pill alone rose with age, and use of condoms alone declined. Dual condom and pill use, use of withdrawal and use of no method were not associated with age.
Black men were more likely than white or Hispanic men to use condoms alone or in conjunction with the pill. Family income and poverty status had no association with condom use, either alone or combined with pill use (not shown).Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
The median risk behavior score was three for males; 26% of men had scores of 0-1 and 16% had scores of 5-6. The cross-tabulations suggest that sexual risk factors had less impact on condom use among young men than among young women. Age at first intercourse, lifetime number of partners and use of alcohol or drugs at last intercourse (not shown) had no relation to the prevalence of condom use with the pill. A greater lifetime number of partners was associated with less use of condoms alone.
Having received HIV education and having talked with parents or other adult relatives about HIV were associated with increased use of condoms, both alone and in combination with the pill. As seat belt usage increased, reliance on condoms alone increased and use of no method declined. The frequency of exercise revealed no relationship to use of any method (data not shown).
We used logistic regression to identify the independent factors that predicted condom use at last sexual intercourse among young men and women. Because the prevalence of dual use of condoms and the pill in the cross-tabulations is influenced by the prevalence of either method, we examined condom use separately for young men and women relying on the pill and for those using no method to prevent pregnancy. (These analyses excluded those using withdrawal or other methods.)Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Initially, we entered all potential independent variables into the logistic regression; we then removed nonsignificant variables and recomputed the results. If variables approached statistical significance (p<.05) in the initial analysis, we added them back one at a time to determine whether they should be included in the final model.
We found that several alternative models predicted condom use at last sexual intercourse among young women using the pill. In the first model (Table 3), independent predictors included age, race and ethnicity, risk behavior score, age at initiation of sexual intercourse, number of partners in the previous three months and having talked with parents or other adult family members about HIV. Women with higher risk behavior scores were less likely to use condoms (odds ratio=0.84), although this effect was not significant (p=.06).
In the two alternative models (not shown), either age at first sexual intercourse or the risk behavior score was removed from the model. Eliminating either variable increased the effect size and decreased the p value for the other. For example, with age at first sexual intercourse removed, the risk behavior score had an odds ratio of 0.78 (p=.01). This statistical effect may be explained by the correlation between the two variables (Pearson R=-0.26).Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
In all three models, younger women and black women were more likely than other women to use condoms with the pill. Women who had had no sexual partners in the previous three months were more likely than those with one partner to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. There was no difference in condom use between women with two or more partners and those with only one. Finally, women who reported having talked with parents or other adult family members about HIV were more likely to have used a condom.
Independent predictors for use of condoms alone by young women at last sexual intercourse included age, race and ethnicity, risk behavior score, age at first intercourse and seat belt use (Table 3). Women who were younger, had lower risk behavior scores and had delayed initiation of sexual intercourse were more likely to have used condoms. Hispanics were less likely than whites to have used condoms (odds ratio of 0.48), while condom use among blacks was similar to that among whites. Frequent or consistent use of seat belts was associated with increased condom use.
Among young men whose partners were using the pill (Table 4), the model predicting use of condoms at last sexual intercourse included age, race and ethnicity, risk behavior score and having received HIV education in school. Condom use was higher among younger men, blacks, those with lower risk behavior scores and those who reported having received HIV education. Neither age at first intercourse nor number of partners in the past three months was a significant predictor of condom use for young men whose partners were using the pill.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
The independent predictors for use of condoms alone by young men included age, race and ethnicity, risk behavior score, age at first intercourse and discussion of HIV with family members. Younger men and those with lower risk behavior scores were more likely to have used a condom. Hispanic adolescents and adolescents who had first had sex when they were 15 or younger were less likely to have used a condom. Young men who reported having talked about HIV with parents or other adult relatives were more likely than those who had not to have used a condom. Those who had had no sexual partners in the previous three months also were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse, although this effect was of borderline statistical significance. We found no significant interaction between either age or ethnicity and any significant variable in the final models for men or women.
A number of important patterns emerge from these data. Many adolescents had used no method to protect against STDs or pregnancy at last intercourse or had used ineffective methods such as withdrawal. Most had used a single method, usually the condom or the pill. Some adolescents had used two methods of protection; the most common combination was the pill and the condom. Among respondents who had used oral contraceptives, about one in five young women and one in four young men had also used a condom. That dual use was less common than condom use overall suggests that, for many adolescents, the condom is primarily a means of avoiding pregnancy and that prevention of HIV and other STDs is not a separate goal.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Demographic factors, risk behaviors and several protective factors were associated with condom use among adolescents using the pill. Although condoms are a male-controlled method, factors predicting condom use for young men and women were similar—age, race and ethnicity, nonsexual risk behavior score and (for condoms used alone) age at first coitus. These similarities probably reflect, in part, demographic similarities between partners. The comparable effect of one sexual risk behavior variable (age at first sex) and the nonsexual risk behavior scale also suggests a global effect of risk behavior.
Young black men and women were more likely to use the pill and the condom together than were members of other ethnic groups. African-American communities have been particularly devastated by HIV, other STDs and unintended pregnancy. As a result, black youths may be making more specific choices in protecting themselves against the dual risks of STD infection and unintended pregnancy.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Younger respondents of both sexes were consistently more likely than older youths to have used a condom at last intercourse, either alone or in combination with another method. Previous studies have suggested that condom use is higher at first sexual intercourse, among persons in newer relationships and among those whose sexual activity is sporadic rather than regular.19 All of these situations are more common among younger adolescents. With increased age and time in a relationship, many couples switch to female-controlled methods.20 Remarkably, even among pill users, younger adolescents were more likely than older youths to use condoms, suggesting an influence independent of this switch, perhaps an effect of social norms. In addition, other contraceptive methods are less accessible to young adolescents. (We found that only 11% of 14-15-year-olds were using oral contraceptives.)
This age effect also may reflect shorter relationships and increased concern about STDs among younger teenagers. Nevertheless, the number of partners in the past three months (an indicator of relationship stability) was independently predictive in only two models, and its effect differed between the two. More refined measures of partner relationships (e.g., length of relationship or type of partner) would be needed to clarify these results.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Both sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors were independently associated with lower rates of condom use. The scale of nonsexual risk factors was predictive in three of four logistic models in Tables 3 and 4 and was of borderline statistical significance (p=.06) in the fourth. These behaviors had remarkably similar effects: Each had an odds ratio of about 0.85, which corresponds to an average decrease of 15% in condom use for each additional risk factor.
Similarly, young age at first coitus was associated with lower odds of condom use in three of four logistic models; youth who began sexual intercourse at or before age 13 had the lowest rates of current condom use. This result supports Greenberg’s finding that young age at first intercourse is a risk marker for sexual risk behavior among women 15-44 who have been sexually active for at least five years.21
Several concepts have been used to explain adolescent risk behavior, including problem behavior theory22 and sensation-seeking.23 The latter suggests that people with a predisposition to sensation-seeking may be more likely to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, including nonuse of condoms. Jessor suggests that biological, social environmental, perceived environmental, personality and behavioral factors influence adolescent risk behaviors. Early initiation of intercourse has been related to sexual abuse,24 which may in turn influence personality variables such as self-esteem and the value placed on health. These, in turn, could influence condom use.Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
Jessor and his colleagues have also found evidence that adolescents who report healthy behaviors such as exercising and eating a healthy diet are less likely to exhibit risk behaviors,25 although the relationship between healthy behaviors and risk behaviors is not as strong as the relationship between individual risk behaviors. We found a similar pattern: Seat belt use was independently predictive in only one of four models, and frequency of exercise was not predictive in any model.
Having received HIV education in school was associated with higher rates of condom use at last intercourse, but only among males whose partners were using the pill. Communication about HIV with parents and other adults in the family also appeared to have a protective effect among women using the pill and among men relying on condoms alone. In other studies, health education has been found to boost condom use in certain subgroups; the influence of family communication on condom use is less established and deserves further exploration. Level of Acceptance And Use of Condom As a Method of Family Planning By Married Essay
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