Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

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Create a 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation on the study’s findings and how they can be used by nurses as an intervention. Include speaker notes for each slide and additional slides for the title page and references.

Include the following:

  1. Describe the intervention or treatment tool and the specific patient population used in the study.
  2. Summarize the main idea of the research findings for a specific patient population. The research presented must include clinical findings that are current, thorough, and relevant to diabetes and nursing practice.Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay
  3. Provide a descriptive and reflective discussion of how the new tool or intervention can be integrated into nursing practice. Provide evidence to support your discussion.
  4. Explain why psychological, cultural, and spiritual aspects are important to consider for a patient who has been diagnosed with diabetes. Describe how support can be offered in these respective areas as part of a plan of care for the patient. Provide examples.

You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the RUBRIC (LOCATED IN ATTACHMENTS) prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

DiabetesType 2 is a chronic condition that makes a person’s blood haveoverconcentrated sugar. Previously, the disease was associated withadults above forty years. However, recent studies show that SouthAsians in their twenties, adolescents, and young children fromdifferent ethnicities are all vulnerable to the disease. Over 90%diabetes patients suffer from type 2 disease while the remainingpercentage suffers from type-1 diabetes condition. Advanced medicalresearch has revealed that diabetes is preventable. The expandingresearch on the biological foundation of the disease has enhanceddevelopment of prevention solutions for the disease. Scientists havebeen focusing on three key areas in developing a treatment solutionfor the disease. The viewpoints include preventive, communication,and screening interventions. However, the objective of this researchwould be investigating evidence-based behavioral intervention, on anadult population, for controlling diabetes type 2.

Inthe 2001 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and KidneyDiseases conference, the diabetes researchers outlined a new andeffective intervention strategy for reducing an individual’svulnerability to the disease through behavior modification. Thelatest research was conducted in China, Finland, and USA, and theresults indicated that maintaining a healthy weight could help incontrolling diabetes. An individual can maintain desirable bodyweight through ensuring to accomplish at least 150 minutes of intensephysical training (Levene &amp Donnelly, 2007). Obese persons arethree times more vulnerable to diabetes type 2 than persons withhealthy body weight are. Lifestyle intervention methods may includedietary change, increasing physical activities, and takinglow-calorie diets. Although overweight persons can use drugs to helpthem accelerate the weight loss process, only individuals with a BMIabove 30 kg/m2 should attempt the process (Fisher et al., 2002).Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

Identify a research or evidence-based article that focuses comprehensively on a specific intervention or new diagnostic tool for the treatment of diabetes in adults or children. In a paper of 750-1,000 words, summarize the main idea of the research findings for a specific patient population. Research must include clinical findings that are current, thorough, and relevant to diabetes and the nursing practice. Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment. You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. Only Word documents can be submitted to Turnitin. NB. Please as I have made this new order being suggested by you, I will want the writer to carefully look at the instructions of the Professor I sent to you. The submission date is tomorrow and that is why it is a 24hr order. I will not want any problems on it please. The question has to be answered according to the Professor’s instruction. I will send the instructions through the support team. The writers should look at the this question critically before answering it as what the Professor is asking for is in the question. Thanks. I am sending the Professor’s instructions to you again to guide you in answering this question. Below are the instructions: ” Final Assignment Hello everyone, this week’s assignment is to identify a research article about an intervention or diagnostic tool as it relates to nursing practice.Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay THIS SHOULD NOT BE FROM A WEB SITE IT MUST BE A RESEARCH ARTICLE. In the paper summarize the main idea of the research findings for a specific patient population. Research MUST include CLINICAL FINDINGS that are current, thorough, and relevant to diabetes and the nursing practice. This is your final assignment in this course and my expectations are that you will use all the comments from your previous assignments when writing this paper. I expect your best work. My comments and ideas given in your previous papers will be my guide in grading your final paper. I expect to see growth in all areas. For the paper I need to see an introduction that gives the reader an idea of what you will be discussion. I expect to see some headings to introduce each section, be sure to pay attention to the length of your paragraphs, and that each paragraph to not contain too many different ideas. I also need to see a conclusion to your paper. This is a simple idea of what your paper should like—Be sure to address all areas of the rubric. All citation in the paper should be address in your reference list and all articles in the reference list should be cited in the paper. Introduction——- Introduce your topic to the reader Summary of Research – summarize who conducted the research, where it was conducted and who were the participants. Clinical Findings_______ what did they find in the research Significance of the intervention or tool to diabetes and the practice of nursing. How will this research help diabetes and nursing Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

Gestational diabetes (GDM) can be defined as a kind of diabetes observed in pregnancy. It can be described as intolerance to glucose or elevated glucose level initiated or recognized in pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Gestational diabetes affects almost 5-7% of all pregnancies in the US annually.

Gestational diabetes: pathophysiology, etiology, signs and symptoms, interventions, prognosis, and a nursing approach
Gestational diabetes (GDM) can be defined as intolerance to glucose or elevated glucose level initiated or recognized in pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Gestational diabetes affects almost 5-7% of all pregnancies in the US annually. This implies that approximately 200000 women in the US have to deal with this condition every year. The risk factors associated with GDM are maternal age, history of GDM in previous pregnancy, family history, high birth weight babies, having polycystic ovarian syndrome and elevated body mass index prior to pregnancy. GDM is seen in population of women who also have a high likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. They include Native American women, Hispanic/Latina women, African American and Asian women.Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay For most women blood glucose levels go back to normal post delivery; however it has also been observed that many of the women with GDM are eventually diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (O’ Sullivan, 1970).
GDM is primarily a condition of a decreased sensitivity to insulin or increased resistance to insulin. It is now agreed that insulin resistance is a normal condition of pregnancy to ensure elevated glucose supply to the growing fetus. Insulin resistance is describes as the inability of insulin to produce an expected biological response of carbohydrate metabolism and clearance. The insensitivity to insulin is believed to be triggered by various pregnancy hormones, particularly the placental lactogen, somamatomammotropin, corticotrophin releasing hormone. These hormones interfere with the insulin and insulin receptor signaling pathway. Under normal physiological conditions, binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation and activation of insulin receptor. This activation then triggers a cascade of activation of various protein molecules leading to translocation of glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose. However, in pregnancy and later in GDM the insulin signaling pathway is compromised. This leads to decreased uptake of glucose in cells of skeletal muscle, hepatic tissue and adipose tissue and decrease suppression of glucose production in cells of hepatic tissue. To overcome the insulin resistance 1.5-2.5 times more insulin is secreted as compared to normal pregnancy. However, due to insulin resistance in GDM, the elevated insulin does not lead to proper glucose clearance. In women with untreated GDM, the fetus also gets glucose constantly by means of glucose transporter across the placenta. The fetus as a result produces more insulin and elevated insulin eventually leads to excessive birth weight (macrosomia). Babies with excess insulin become children who are at risk for metabolic syndrome, obesity and are at greater risk for getting type 2 diabetes as adults.
Gestational diabetes typically does not cause any noticeable signs or symptoms. Some of the common symptoms of diabetes such as severe thirst or increased urination are never observed. Other symptoms such as fatigue, swelling in feet can be associated as symptoms of pregnancy. As a result, proper and timely diagnosis is critical. A number of screening and diagnostic tests are routinely used to detect elevated glucose levels in pregnancy. Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay Many obstetricians utilize a stepwise approach in which an elevated level on a screening test is followed by a more thorough diagnostic test. Alternatively, a more involved diagnostic test is the first choice for women who present risk factors (women with history of GDM or women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome). According to American college of Obstetrics all pregnant women should be screened for GDM based on their clinical history or laboratory testing. Clinical history of risk factors is able to capture only 50% of pregnancies. As a result, doctors usually employ 50 gm oral glucose challenge test as the screening method in the US. A cutoff point is set between 130-140 mg/100 mL for the blood glucose level one hour post ingestion. This leads to achievement of 80-99% sensitivity. Women who test positive for the glucose challenge test are given a 3 hour glucose challenge test. The GTT is performed in the morning following an overnight fast. A 75 or 100 g solution of glucose is ingested by the pregnant patient and blood is drawn to measure glucose at the beginning of the test and at set time interval(3 hours later). Most clinicians and doctors usually employ the more inclusive Carpenter/Coustan criteria. Using the Carpenter/Coustan criteria more women who are at risk of complications associated with GDM are diagnosed. The important thing to remember is that the intolerance for carbohydrate metabolism represented by elevated blood glucose either presented in 1 hour screening or in 3 hour GTT is associated with some adverse perinatal outcome and maternal complications.Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay
The key to management of GDM is by regulating and maintaining glucose levels. This effectively leads to fewer serious fetal complications and improved quality of life for the mother. Providing counseling and education about eating healthy diet prior to pregnancy is suggested. Many of the women who are eventually diagnosed with GDM are able to manage the symptoms with changes to diet and exercise. A few women, however, need treatment to control their symptoms. Women with GDM on average need a daily caloric intake of 15 kcal · lb-1 · day-1 if they are normal weight. Use of low glycemic index (GI) diet in is recommended to all patients. A diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables and lean protein can lead to achievement of normal blood glucose levels. Counting of carbohydrates can also be a useful tool. The goal is to consume 30-45 g for breakfast, 45-60 g at lunch and dinner. 15-30 g of carbohydrate can be consumed as mid day snacks. Daily exercise of walking, swimming and low impact aerobic exercise 30 minutes a day can also help in lowering of blood glucose level. ACOG recommends that exercise heart rates should not exceed 140 bpm. Exercise increases the sensitivity to insulin and enhances insulin action. In addition to diet and exercise, an ultrasound is suggested at 36 weeks to measure the growth of the fetus and fetal weight. If there is likelihood of macrosomia some physicians recommend induction of labor (Carr & Gabbe, 1998).Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay
Self-monitoring of blood glucose is vital for women with GDM (Landon & Gabbe, 2011). The goal of self-monitoring is to measure elevated blood glucose levels in the maternal blood. However, preventing hypoglycemia is just as important in women taking medication. The ACOG recommends measurement of fasting and 1 and 2 hours after eating. Fasting blood glucose should be < 95 mg/dl, 1-hour postprandial glucose < 140 mg/dl, and 2-hour postprandial glucose < 120 mg/dl (Metzger & Coustan, 1998). If diet and exercise still shows elevated blood glucose level, treatment with insulin might be required. Many women only require once a day (nightly) dose of neutral protamine insulin; while others need post meal fast-acting insulin to control elevated blood glucose levels. Since free insulin does not cross placenta there is no risk observed with the therapy for the fetus. In addition to insulin oral agents are also indicated for some GDM patients. Sulfonylureas, Metformin and Biguanides are generally safe for use in pregnancy. However, studies have demonstrated that treatment with insulin results in better maintenance and outcome of symptoms for mother and the baby (Rowan, Hague, Gao, Battin, Moore & Mig, 2009).Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay
Most women with gestational diabetes who receive treatment go on to deliver healthy babies. The risk of complications increases only when blood glucose levels are not properly managed. All patients with GDM should be educated regarding lifestyle modifications that can be made to lower insulin resistance, including maintenance of normal body weight healthy diet and physical activity However when looking at long term effect of GDM, it is observed that between 30-85% women will eventually be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Women who get pregnant within a year of giving birth have greater risk of having type 2 diabetes. The risk is highest in women who required insulin, women who have had two previous pregnancies and obese women. Long term goal of follow up should be strategies toward prevention of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease that begin by accurate diagnosis of glucose abnormalities.
Nursing Approach: A study to evaluate the feasibility of a telemedicine system based on Internet and a short message service in pregnancy and its influence on delivery and neonatal outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was carried out. 100 women diagnosed of GDM were randomized into two parallel groups, a control group based on traditional face-to-face outpatient clinic visits and an intervention group, which was provided with a Telemedicine system for the transmission of capillary glucose data and short text messages with weekly professional feedback. A diabetes nurse educator and an endocrinologist evaluated the patients’ data online. The nurse educator then sent text messages making recommendations for nutritional changes or adjustments in insulin doses. The patients could text their questions or provide dietary information. Results. The study demonstrated that a telemedicine system could be useful as an alternative to traditional outpatient clinic visits. Although women in the telemedicine group attended the outpatient clinic less frequently than those in the control group, no deleterious effects on metabolic control, pregnancy, delivery, or on the newborn despite the presence of a higher proportion of insulin-using patients in the telemedicine group. (Perez-Ferre, Galindo, Fernandez, Velasco & Calle-Pascual, 2010)Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay


TheCentersfor Disease Control and Preventionorganized a Task Force on Community Preventive Services for reviewingthe outcome of promoting physical activities and taking healthydiets. Surplus weight is the most common cause of type-2 diabetes.Studies indicate that overweight persons are 20-40 times morevulnerable to the condition than another person with an averageweight is(Fisher et al., 2002).

Sedentarylifestyle among the adults is a common cause for diabetes type-2 asan individual can accumulate excess weight quickly. Health careprofessionals recommend that adults should dedicate time every dayfor physical activities. The workout enhances the ability of the bodyabsorb glucose and utilize insulin (Levene &amp Donnelly, 2007).Physical activity reduces stress on insulin-manufacturing cells.According to a study by the Nurses’ Health Study, a person does nothave to engage in long sessions of sweaty and hot workouts, but evenwalking quickly for thirty minutes every day is effective forreducing susceptibility to type-2 diabetes (Fisher et al., 2002).Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

Modifyingdiets is another effective strategy for controlling type-2 diabetes.The Conference on Behavioral Science Research in Diabetes held in1999 reported that consuming whole grains and their byproducts,instead of taking highly processed diets, reduces the risk ofsuffering from diabetes type-2. Nurses’ Health Studies II and Ifollowed up foods consumed by adults for a period of eighteen yearsand discovered that individuals taking 2-3 whole grain servingseveryday were 30% unlikely to develop type-2 diabetes thanindividuals taking processed foods (Levene &amp Donnelly, 2007).Health care professionals also recommend refraining from consumingvery sugary beverages. Drinks with high-sugar concentration also havehigh-glucose concentration that increases enhance vulnerability of aperson to diabetes. Instead, dieticians recommend people to takenatural juice extracts with no artificial additions such as flavorsand colors. Instead of taking the polysaturated vegetable oils, anindividual should consume healthy fats such as omega-3. Consumingmuch white and processed meats also make one vulnerable to diabetestype-2. Instead, persons vulnerable to diabetes should rather consumewhite meat such as poultry, as well as nutritious grains like nuts,beans, seeds, and tofu (Goldstein &amp Mueller-Wieland, 2007).Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

Diabetesintervention techniques may occur at individual, community ororganizational level. A lifestyle intervention in diabetes preventionprogram (DPP) intended for individuals is administered in anextremely versatile and personalized one-on-one manner. Effectiveintervention programs often reduce the average body weight by about7% (Goldstein &amp Mueller-Wieland, 2007). According to an AHRQ DietReport, several dietary interventions targeting individualsemphasizes on regulating fats amount in the diet, but with littlestress on the significance of weight loss, vegetables, fiber, andfruits (Fisher et al., 2002). Some programs are executed inhealthcare centers, although spouses and family inclusion and groupcounseling emphasize on self-monitoring that is also efficient inpreventing relapse.

Foran organizational intervention to be successful, it requires focusingon several intervention levels ranging from group meetings, activitypackets, involving the family with dietary-associated homework, andcafeteria food choices (Fisher et al., 2002). Successfulorganizational environments integrate techniques such as goalsetting, screenings, personalizing feedback on the food an individualconsumes, changing the type of food accessible to an individual invending machines and cafeterias, participatory approaches, and mailedself-help materials (Levene &amp Donnelly, 2007).Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

Lastly,diabetes intervention can occur at community level. The exercise canbe implemented via worksites and schools. Efficient strategies oftenused in triumphant programs include integrating family components,allowing patients freedom to manage themselves, using community-basedclasses, emphasizing on peer instructors, and changing a patient’sshopping site such as from a supermarket to a greengrocer where he orshe cannot access junk diets (Levene &amp Donnelly, 2007).

Insummary, behavioral modification on an adult population is anefficient intervention method for controlling diabetes type 2. Targetpatients adjust their lifestyle by changing regular diets, as well asengaging in physical exercise. Physical exercise and diet adjustmenthelps an individual in maintaining healthy body weight that reducespredisposition of an individual from diabetes.Intervention Presentation On Diabetes Essay

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