LO1: Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative research methods

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It has been stated that in the current era of Modern science there are multiple ways of thinking and identifying qualitative and quantitative research. The disagreement between qualitative examination methodologies and other research techniques is in inconsistency with the methodological aspects, as well as shows up in the opposition, in the epistemological field. This implies that the instruments, as well as in the focal methodologies describe the generation of information. I accept that the qualitative epistemology is focused around standards that have vital methodological outcomes. Alternately, quantitative outline addresses the numerical delineation of proof examined and information gathered.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Logical information from qualitative exploration is not legitimized by the quantity of subjects examined, however by the nature of its outflow (Bernard & Bernard, 2013). The quantity of subjects to study reacts to a quantitative paradigm, characterized essentially by the needs of the learning procedure found sometime during the examination in factual means. Singular statement of the subject in both the techniques gets centrality as the spot which may have at one point for the generation of thoughts by the analyst. The data passed on by a specific subject can be a critical minute for the generation of learning, without essentially must be rehashed in different subjects and information gathering techniques.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Qualitative exploration offers numerous perspectives with quantitative examination morals. Along these lines, the moral issues are appropriate to science as a rule to both the examination plans. Clearly, knowing the multifaceted nature of morals and good logic, it is prescribed that an exchange that is expected to approach moral judgements of qualitative examination ought to be upheld by a few hypotheses. At the same time there are such a variety of hypotheses that a well meaning push to actualize large portions of them in the investigation of a particular examination can get to be inefficient.

Especially on account of quantitative exploration, it is important to incorporate individuals with capacity and readiness of reflection and correspondence that they comprehend social qualities, needs and powerlessness, and the concerns of potential study subjects (Bernard & Bernard, 2013). Leading qualitative exploration is similarly less immoderate than directing quantitative examination. Qualitative research likewise turns out to be viable when the exploration obliges unlimited measure of data.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

LO2: Is Research evidence appropriate to health and social care practice

Since the first instances of AIDS were distinguished in 1981, HIVs have been disparaged. The examination confirmation existed on this point involves to the broad accessibility of information and databases. Cao et al., (2010) recommended that in social and medicinal services connection, the dread of AIDS spread over our country, HIVs being deprived from their occupations, ousted from their homes, denied restorative tend to, savagery and expelled from their own particular families. Additionally, HIV-positive kids have been denied admission to schools, games groups and clubs, and have encountered badgering from other youngsters and folks of other kids. This social derision of HIVs is not restricted to the United Kingdom, either.

In different nations, HIVs have been beaten to death; disregarded by neighbours, managers and social insurance specialists; and even compared to rehearsing witchcraft. As a result of its relationship with the unthinkable subject of male-to-male sex and the trepidation of tainting, society has reacted to HIV/AIDS by disparaging persons to avoid them as much as possible. Is this belittling got from outsiders, as well as it can be gotten from the HIV’s relatives, companions and health awareness experts too. It is interesting to note that during an era when HIVs need social backing like never before, they are rather subjected to the threatening vibe and dismissal connected with HIV-related disgrace.

Radcliffe et al., (2010) characterized the expression “Helps related shame” as “a term that alludes to preference, reducing, undermining, and segregation guided at individuals saw to have AIDS or HIV, and the people, gatherings, and groups with which they are related”. This belittling can be showed in numerous diverse ways, frequently focused around the current generalizations of the society. In the United Kingdom, HIV-related disgrace showed through seclusion, dismissal, stereotyping, segregation and off and on again savagery. Social Factors of HIV-Related Stigma HIV/ AIDS confront shame on numerous distinctive levels. Medicinal diseases as of now can be a disgrace of their own, particularly focused around the reality of the condition.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Since there is right now no cure for HIV/ AIDS, the condition is viewed as “deadly,” a term which strikes fear in the hearts of the vast majority. In an examination article on “Supports and Stigma,” Wagner et al., (2010) demonstrates that there are four particular qualities of HIV/AIDS that inspire disgrace from society, specifically: 1) apparent obligation of the PWHIV in getting the illness, 2) the “unalterable or degenerative” nature of the malady, 3) the way that it can be an infectious infection and 4) the promptly obvious indications of the sickness which show as the ailment advances. Rao et al., (2012) draw a qualification between “instrumental AIDS disgrace” (identifying with the transmittable and deadly nature of HIV) and “typical AIDS shame”. Instrumental AIDS shame is an after-effect of society’s characteristic apprehension of the illness and the absence of instruction on infection transmission.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

LO3: Examining research evidence with consideration to validity and reliability

In assessing studies, numerous methodological concerns do develop. Maybe, the most vital concerns are reliability and validity of the exploration procedure. Reliability appraisal of a study device is a centre segment of behavioural research and can be used effectively into immediate perceptions by deciding best conceivable levels of presentation. A few strategies have been utilized that can give reliability of the survey estimation routines, including test-retest, Pearson coefficient, Kendall’s coefficient, odd-even, and the proportional structures strategy. Social approval systems are substantial to the degree that they gauge what they claim to quantify. It is basic that great inward and outer validity be expressed as a social approval method. In addition, the outside validity of the evaluation methodology can be evaluated and still is faulty (Ritchie et al., 2013). The measurements analysts accept they are measuring may have little connection to what is really being measured and that face validity is deficient as the sole paradigm for assessing the validity of appraisal gadgets.

One approach to survey validity would be to have the social approval evaluation created or reassessed by a board of masters or judges who are not included straightforwardly in the examination. An alternate technique would be to have a social approval evaluation of the social acceptance instrument. Case in point, in the wake of reacting to a poll, raters would react to a second survey that let them know the reason for the first survey and requested that the rate how well they thought the inquiries surveyed the reason (Ritchie et al., 2013). Also, analysts need to be mindful of radiance impacts, inclinations to tolerance or seriousness, focal propensity reactions, and position or closeness predispositions of raters, which might misleadingly improve the reliability of estimation without enhancing reaction exactness or validity.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

LO4: Demonstrate knowledge of the relationship between research theory and health and social care practice

Investigation demonstrates that social help whether perceived or genuine is especially paramount for females as they depend all the more on social connections contrasted with men in comparable circumstances. A few studies have recommended that apparent social backing is more vital than genuine backing. Social backing has been demonstrated to impact both well being conduct and well being conclusions. Further, social backing has been indicated to cradle the impact of natural stressors, in this way, minimizing antagonistic results of upsetting circumstances. There is an overall reported backwards relationship between social backing and misery among HIV-positive populaces. Albeit much is thought about HIV-related shame and HIV-divulgence, an audit of the writing uncovers an absence of understanding of how they influence misery. Consequently, the general objective of this study is to look at the connections between sorrow (a mental result of HIV illness) and HIV-related shame, exposure of HIV positive status, and social backing among African-American ladies with HIV infection.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Cao et al., (2010) portrayed social backing as an indispensable asset that an individual must draw upon for survival. As a safety asset, social backing is hypothesized to have an immediate impact on both cognitive evaluation and adapting endeavours. Social backing can help more positive examinations of individual life circumstances and backing more powerful adapting. Social backing can serve to lessen instability and stress and give the individual a method for diversion, passionate help, sensitivity and sympathy, and accommodating data. Ritchie et al., (2013) further developed the idea of social help, expressing that there is an agreeable refinement between the number and sorts of social connections and the view of the estimation of such connections. The quantity of social connections is termed the informal community.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

The view of social connections is termed seen social backing. At long last, Ritchie et al., (2013) recommended that there are distinctive sorts of social backing, for example, passionate, instructive, or substantial, and the sort of help must additionally be considered notwithstanding the span of the informal community and the impression of the nature of help that is accessible. Cao et al., (2010) remarkable various studies that have demonstrated how social connections maintain wellbeing and on the other hand how low social help identifies with negative wellbeing results.

Broad exploration has showed that social combination has significant physical and mental medical advantages for more established grown-ups. What’s more, social backing has been indicated to be identified with positive conclusions in individuals living with HIV and, all the more particularly, to gay men living with HIV. Actually, adults matured 50 years and more seasoned include in excess of 10% of the HIV-positive populace in the United Kingdom. This rate is most likely excessively low focused around the way that more established grown-ups are rarely tried for HIV.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Not their doctors or the more established grown-ups themselves see that they are at danger for the sickness. This is further convoluted on the grounds that numerous manifestations of HIV can be camouflaged as results of maturing. Alongside ladies and minorities, more seasoned grown-ups are right now one of the quickest developing HIV-contaminated populaces. They are particularly defenceless against disease (by physical changes in the body with age and by disappointment to utilize proper insurance amid sex) and, when tainted, they are more averse to recognize the side effects, get tired and look for the help they require.

LO5: Gather evidence from a variety of research sources, including charts, graphs and tables, from text and online sources

Although, emotional distress serves as a motivator for help-seeking behavior, the fear of being stigmatized may cloud the person’s cognitive process of making the decision to seek help. As time is of the essence with HIV/ AIDS, this delay in seeking health or social services presents a real problem.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

HIV/AIDS cases are also on the rise in such marginalized groups as African-Americans, women and older adults. Therefore, in many cases, HIVs are already stigmatized prior to disclosure of their HIV-positive condition. They know all too well the results of being stigmatized and, therefore, may be even more unwilling to disclose their HIV-positive status.

The HIV-related stigma, then, becomes a second or even third type of stigma that is forced upon them. In their study of HIV-related stigma received by African-American caregivers, Rudolph et al., (2010) stated that “social isolation stemming from HIV-related stigma may be exacerbated for women, for elderly people, and for people of colour”.

Persons who get HIV through circumstances which were out of their control (i.e., blood transfusions, needle-sticks or mother-to-kid) are even subject to this kind of slander, particularly as their infection advances. Typical AIDS shame is a statement of the general public’s negative state of mind connected with the transmission of HIV. Due to the way of HIV/ AIDS, it will in the end get to be important for the contaminated individual to look for restorative consideration, at any rate. The forceful enthusiastic impacts going with the ailment might likewise make the requirement for usage of social administrations.. As time is of the pith with HIV/ AIDS, this deferral in looking for well being or social administrations exhibits a genuine issue. To confound matters, more established grown-ups and some ethnic gatherings are now uncertain of western solution hones, human services associations and mental health administrations and, moreover, might not have equivalent access to these administrations. Albeit one may think divulgence to administration suppliers may not act like incredible a danger of being criticized as exposure to family, companions or associates, it still has dangers.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay


Since, the situation of HIV/ AIDS, is inevitably vital for the HIV-positive individuals to look for restorative consideration, at any rate, the compelling passionate impacts going with the disease might likewise make the requirement for use of social administrations. To entangle matters, more established grown-ups and some ethnic gatherings are as of now uncertain of western medication hones, human services associations and mental health administrations and, moreover, might not have equivalent access to these administrations. Albeit one may think deprivation to administration suppliers may not act like incredible a danger of being derided as exposure to family, companions or associates, it still has dangers. Notwithstanding the hazard that the HIV’s status may not be kept totally private, there is likewise the danger of being defamed by the very administration experts to whom the HIV’s turns for help. Despite the fact that health awareness experts may not have any desire to confess to slandering HIVs, the examination has confirm that HIV-related shame keeps on being available among some of them (Wagner et al., 2010). Notwithstanding the solid impact HIV-related disgrace can have on the self, it is characteristic for individuals to oppose being disparaged, and in this way, the social shame of HIV/ AIDS may make unnecessary deterrents to get social and health awareness administrations. On the off chance that the HIV’s urge to oppose defamation is stronger than their urge to look for help for themselves, they may evade usage of HIV-related administrations until such time that they cannot maintain a strategic distance from it any longer, maybe because of a hospitalization.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Stigma and seroconversion are a few familiar words that come to mind when dealing with HIV/AIDS. These are a few processes that people go through when they are indentified as being HIV positive. This is when their life on whole comes into contrast. This is so because people often take things like sex for granted and it is because of this some can’t live a healthy lifestyle. Just imagine finding out that you are positive. How will society accept you? What about the stigmatization that one goes through. Can you imagine the physical, mental and emotional torments of the person’s life? Many people are left to walk in shame because of the fact that people usually do little to educate themselves about the virus. Even with the awareness of how…show more content…
Over 65 million people have been infected since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS pandemic over two decades ago, but these statistics are not a true reflection of the actual numbers because many people live unknowingly with the virus. Why are the true numbers not reflected in statistics? There are many reasons that cause the true numbers not to be reflected such as the unwillingness to get tested or even not seeing the need to get tested therefore we see wrong results of statistics. It becomes impossible to get the actual number of Infected people when many people do not get tested. This is because of the ignorance of people. They often think that they are in love with an individual so they get the idea that they can have unprotected sex. The problem that arises is that one may not know how many sexual partners their significant other may have had. This then becomes a risk that can be very detrimental to physical and emotional health. It is very important that sexually active people be enlightened about their status. Knowing that you are H.I.V positive puts your life into a different perspective. It leads people to wonder if they would be accepted in society and ask themselves; what will people say? This usually causes psychological strain on an individual. The individual would then have to live with the fear of being taunted and ridiculed.  HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Internationally, there has been a recent resurgence of interest in HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, triggered at least in part by growing recognition that negative social responses to the epidemic remain pervasive even in seriously affected communities. Yet, rarely are existing notions of stigma and discrimination interrogated for their conceptual adequacy and their usefulness in leading to the design of effective programmers and interventions. Taking as its starting point, the classic formulation of stigma as a ‘significantly discrediting’ attribute, but moving beyond this to conceptualize stigma and stigmatization as…show more content…
She also reported being excluded from participating in some school activities, just because she had AIDS. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination in employment Getting a job after school was not easy for her. After suspecting that she was denied jobs from the local businesses because of her HIV/AIDS status, she decided to look for a job in a distant town. She got the job, but after her employer and workmates learned of her HIV/AIDS, things never remained the same; she suffered rejection and offensive comments from workmates, and eventually, her employer terminated her employment. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination in religious communities Instead of love and compassion from religious groups, the young girl instead was perceived to have brought double portions of shame, disgrace and reproach to her religion. She was blamed for moral and religious irresponsibility.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay


The modern concept of a social stigma comes from the work of American sociologist Erving Goffman, who described it as a response to a deeply discrediting attribute that devalues the person [1]. In the medical literature, stigma is almost inevitably written about in terms of adverse social sequelae of a disease—such as leprosy, tuberculosis, epilepsy, schizophrenia, or filariasis [2–6]—or a physical characteristic or functional loss, such as obesity, deafness, or paraplegia [7–9]. The consequences of stigma range from moderate opprobrium at one end of the spectrum to death [10].

From the moment scientists identified HIV and AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic. Discrimination has spread rapidly, fuelling anxiety and prejudice against the groups most affected, as well as those living with HIV or AIDS. It goes without saying that HIV and AIDS are as much about social phenomena as they are about biological and medical concerns. Across the world the global epidemic of HIV/AIDS has shown itself capable of triggering responses of compassion, solidarity and support, bringing out the best in people, their families and communities. But the disease is also associated with stigma, repression and discrimination, as individuals affected (or believed to be affected) by HIV have been rejected by their families, their loved ones and their communities. This rejection holds as true in the rich countries of the north as it does in the poorer countries of the south.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Stigma is a powerful tool of social control. Stigma can be used to marginalize, exclude and exercise power over individuals who show certain characteristics. While the societal rejection of certain social groups (e.g. ‘homosexuals, injecting drug users, sex workers’) may predate HIV/AIDS, the disease has, in many cases, reinforced this stigma. By blaming certain individuals or groups, society can excuse itself from the responsibility of caring for and looking after such populations. This is seen not only in the manner in which ‘outsider’ groups are often blamed for bringing HIV into a country, but also in how such groups are denied access to the services and treatment they need.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Why there is stigma related to HIV and AIDS?

In many societies people living with HIV and AIDS are often seen as shameful. In some societies the infection is associated with minority groups or behaviours, for example, homosexuality, In some cases HIV/AIDS may be linked to ‘perversion’ and those infected will be punished. Also, in some societies HIV/AIDS is seen as the result of personal irresponsibility. Sometimes, HIV and AIDS are believed to bring shame upon the family or community. And whilst negative responses to HIV/AIDS unfortunately widely exist, they often feed upon and reinforce dominant ideas of good and bad with respect to sex and illness, and proper and improper behaviours.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

The Role of Stigma in Society
But is stigma always bad for health? Recent research has begun to move beyond the generally descriptive work that has populated the field to consider the possible social and biological functions of stigma [11,12]. This new research has broadened the focus from a singular interest in those who are stigmatised, and the negative effects this has on their lives, to the role of stigma within a population.

When considered at a population level, stigma can be studied as an enduring social process, which inevitably produces negative outcomes for some individuals but might in some circumstances produce positive outcomes for a population. The orchestrated stigmatisation of smoking is a case in point. It appears to reduce the population burden of mortality and morbidity due to tobacco by encouraging some to quit (or never to smoke), although it leaves “recalcitrant” smokers more marginalised by their continued habit  HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

The Stigma of HIV
On any ranked list of stigmatised conditions, HIV would have to lie towards the top. As a global public health issue, HIV remains a huge priority. In 2005, it was estimated that 40.3 million people were living with HIV/AIDS, 4.9 million had newly acquired infections, and 3.1 million had died [15]. The delivery of antiretroviral therapy to everyone infected and the development of new antiretroviral therapies are critical to controlling the epidemic. But equally important is the prevention of new infections.

In 2002, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) published a report declaring that the stigma associated with HIV was one of the “greatest barriers” to preventing new infections and alleviating the impact of the disease [16]. In other words, stigma is one of the major determinants of the trajectory of the epidemic. For UNAIDS to make such a declaration, one would expect there to be a considerable body of evidence to back its position. Such a statement naturally suggests that combating the stigma associated with HIV is worthy of substantial economic and human investment.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

In the four years since the report was published, the UNAIDS position has remained consistent [17], and is also now well reflected within the World Health Organization (WHO) [18]. The UNAIDS position, however, is complicated. In addition to being a determinant of the global epidemic, UNAIDS also argues that HIV-related stigma is one of the greatest barriers to the provision of treatment, care, and support to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A typical description of this relationship is as follows: “Stigma and discrimination both stymie efforts to control the global epidemic and create an ideal climate for further growth. Together, they constitute one of the greatest barriers to preventing further infections, providing adequate care, support and treatment, and alleviating the epidemic’s impact” [19].

The two claims are semantically and epidemiologically bound together. The first claim is that stigma is a determinant of the global epidemic. The second is that stigma adversely affects the lives of PLWHA. The second claim is uncontroversial, and is supported by considerable empirical evidence showing that stigma exacerbates the already-heavy burden experienced by PLWHA. Stigma can affect areas of life as diverse as housing, employment, education, and most critically, access to health care [20].HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Where Is the Evidence That Stigma Fuels the Epidemic?
The first claim, linking HIV stigma and the global epidemic, is also treated as a fact—so notorious that it has become the basis for considerable policy and program development [16,21]. The actual evidence base, however, is almost nonexistent. In spite of this lack of evidence, the idea is repeated like a shibboleth [21–31]. With each repetition, its veracity appears to increase.

The argument for the link between HIV stigma and the global epidemic goes something like this: stigma undermines HIV prevention efforts by making a person afraid to engage in safe behaviour or seek testing for fear that these acts would themselves raise suspicion in the minds of others about the person’s HIV sero-status [21]. Stigma leads to fear, fear leads to unsafe behaviour, and unsafe behaviour leads to the spread of the infection in the population (Figure 1).

This line of reasoning about the relationship between stigma and the spread of HIV in the population is flawed in two ways. The first flaw is that it ignores the nonlinear dynamics of infectious disease transmission in populations [32–34]. HIV spreads by exploiting a few human behaviours, predominantly sexual intercourse and injection-drug use. Both of these behaviours are associated with a high degree of cultural specificity with respect to who engages in them, who they engage with, and the periods of their lives during which they engage—these are the factors that largely determine the spread of the infection. For this reason, the virus generally takes hold in subpopulations first, such as injection-drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, and mobile populations [35,36].

Even if stigma does increase the risk of infection within high-risk groups, it could simultaneously slow the spread of infection from those groups to the general population. Objectionable as it may be to see a lethal infection spread in any part of a population, uncontained spread within a part of the population is better than uncontained spread within the whole population. It is plausible that a social control mechanism, such as stigma, could reduce opportunities for contact between high- and low-risk groups. All other things being equal, under these conditions the spread of the virus across the whole population would be slowed. We are thus suggesting an alternative hypothesis to the UNAIDS position.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

The second problem with the claimed relationship between stigma and the spread of HIV is a measurement issue. To establish a causal link between HIV stigma and epidemic progression requires longitudinal data on rates of infection and levels of HIV stigma. Weaker, but nonetheless potentially persuasive, evidence could also be found in an observed correlation between levels of HIV-related stigma and rates of HIV infection across contexts—such as between countries. Currently, no such evidence is available.

Blaming stigma gives too much weight to individual behavioural change as the answer to HIV prevention.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

The best supporting evidence comes out of studies such as those recently undertaken in China with mobile populations in which an association was found between increased levels of stigmatising attitudes toward PLWHA and a reported unwillingness to engage in harm-reduction activities [37,38]. Unfortunately, such studies tend to focus only on the spread of infection within particular high-risk subpopulations, and cannot address the question of interaction between populations. Solving the measurement problem requires, among other things, good estimates of the rate of new infections in populations and subpopulations, and a clear understanding of what “HIV stigma” really means.

Data on new HIV infections are sparse. Indeed, UNAIDS itself only reports country estimates of prevalence [15]. Without data on new infections, however, it is hard to establish the correctness of the UNAIDS position. Even where incidence data are available, they often focus on subpopulations rather than whole populations, and this again misses the point about the possible relationship between a social process such as stigmatisation and the spread of HIV in the population [39,40].HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

It is also difficult to know what exactly is meant, for measurement or intervention purposes, by “HIV stigma” or “HIV-related stigma”. It is not a singular entity. HIV stigma is bound up with pre-existing stigmatising attributes including commercial sex work and injection-drug use [41]. The stigma of one is conflated with the stigma of the others [11]. Separating the effect of pre-existing stigmas from the stigma of the disease alone is important for the development of interventions and for the identification of priorities.

In writing this Essay, our aim is neither to diminish the suffering of PLWHA in the eyes of the reader nor to advocate for the use of HIV stigma as a mechanism to control the spread of the epidemic. Our objective was to draw attention to the lack of evidence supporting the current dominant view on the relationship between stigma and the global spread of HIV. As a driver of policy, the current position closes down potentially important lines of scientific inquiry. Stigma and epidemic control may in fact be two separate problems, but the current position conflates them and halts any consideration of potentially fruitful ways of dealing with them as individual issues.HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

Blaming stigma gives too much weight to individual behavioural change as the answer to HIV prevention: stigmatise PLWHA less and engage in harm-reduction behaviours more. It neglects the more-difficult issues relating to the manner in which HIV spreads in populations, the social vulnerabilities it exploits, and the ways in which individuals within subpopulations interact with each other and with members of other subpopulations.

There are some core scientific issues that need to be overcome if the question of the relationship between HIV stigma and the spread of HIV is to be resolved. Whether HIV stigma is one of the greatest barriers to the global control of the epidemic remains a hypothesis. The scientific investigation of it demands significant effort, and should be a matter of priority. HIV/AIDS Stigma And Discrimination Essay

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