Hello I need help to write this paper on professionally in 1500 word (700word already has been written, it only need to be rewritten in college level writing) you must expend on the situations using any of the framework of conflict resolution in the attachment . For the provided conflict, you can make up some facts to it as applicable that would make the stories better


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Conflict 1:
One conflicts that has been recurring to me during this semester was with a study group in my
Capston class.
Since the beginning of the semester, I noticed that some members from the group appears to be
not accepting me as an international student. This might sounds like a judgment at first, but many
actions prove that was a fact. Despite all of the hard work I was doing all alone by myself for all
of the practice rounds, I felt that all of my hard work was not appreciated. My teammates may
got mis-leaded by the stereotype that all International students, Saudis to be specific, are
irresponsible. It might be true, but not for me.
At the beginning, , I was not doing any major effort to deal with this frustration. However, last
week I decided to speak up. I followed The Four Agreements methods by Carlos Ruiz. I started
by writing them a message that indicates, I know that we’re all going through hard times, and we
have many other responsibilities to achieve and I am like many of you in the same boat.
However, it isn’t faire that carry that burden of this course by myself. I was very relieved after
experiencing these feeling to them.
And instead of making judgments, I was trying to always Seek excuse and assume the good for
them and ask for ways in which I can help.
Don’t make assumptions: to avoid any relational issues, I insured the communication is clear by
giving a lot of details and ask them if they needs any other clearance.
Following this model helped me first to reduce stress as well as the tention between group
Conflict 2:
As I am finishing my undergraduates study by this summer, I was considering the option to get
to the Direct Master of Business Administration program that is offered by Dobi University.
When I was discussing the matter with my mother over the phone, she started to get upset and
angry because she has been waiting for our return to home for a long time. Although I already
planned to go back home, few days ago I brought this topic again because I wanted to try to
practice the Nonviolent Communication by Rosenberg
STEP 1. State what you are observing.
In Arabic off course, I told her that I observe that you got really upset when I tell you about this
STEP 2. State what you are feeling.
I feel studying This opportunity would help me to become a better person and that would
enhance my self-esteem and self-worth.
STEP 3. State what universal need is not being met.
STEP 4. Make a clear request. Offer an invitation to develop solutions jointly.
I hope that you respect my desire to continue my studies or let’s come up with something
thst works for both of us.
I noticed when I used this model, my mother’s reaction
Instead of just not wanting to listen, she was engaged with me in a dialogue in which she
expressed her feelings openly. Moreover, she also was thinking for another alternative with
me such as coming back home and start looking for job opportunities. In case I couldn’t
find any suitable position, I can go back then
By the mid of April, the leasing term for the apartment were ending. Due to the corona viruse, I
decided to postpone moving into a new apartment until everything settled. One of the term on the
lease that if it was to be extended for less than a year, the tenant (me) would be required to pay
10% ($200) extra of the rent amount for each month. I contacted the owner of the condo and I
was negotiating with him about staying for additional 3 months. Knowing that the chances for a
new tenant to acquire the apartment during this time is very low, I set and started my goal at
($1800) lower than my reservation price ($2000) asked him to stay without paying the extra
amount. He proposed a request that if we want to extend for less than a year, we either has to pay
10% extra or make an advanced rent payment for two months. I agree on paying him the rent in
advance. This was the final agreement and I believe it was a win-win situation.
Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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1. PREPARE – Know your BATNA; know your opponent’s BATNA.
2. Focus on your GOAL.
3. Fill out a planning document / prioritize issues / alternatives to make trades /
generate a 2 or 3 MESOs (packages that are of equal value to you).
4. PROBE – Ask questions and LISTEN TO THE ANSWERS! Focus on underlying
concerns, not stated positions – ask for the person’s rationale behind the position.
5. Separate the people from the problem. If your emotions are running high, take a
break so you don’t paint yourself into a corner. Your emotions are a signal that
something else may be going on – listen to this and slow things down to see if you
can move into a more positive direction.
6. PROPOSE – Making the first offer (ideally, your first offer should be 2-3 MESOs) is
to your advantage (unless you know nothing about the bargaining zone).
7. Your first offer should be higher (if seller)/lower (if buyer) than your both your
reservation price and your goal.
8. Propose contingent contracts when different beliefs about the future emerge. When
arguing about the future, bet on it!
9. No agreement is better than a bad agreement (which is either an agreement below
your reservation price or which may comprise your principles).
10. Read and re-read Getting to Yes by Fisher, Ury, & Patton, The Point of the Deal: How to
Negotiate When Yes Is Not Enough by Gordon & Ertel.
1. Take the other party’s perspective. You don’t have to agree with it but try to
understand what it is, at a minimum. Ask if you have it correct.
2. Use Rosenberg’s Nonviolent Communication (obs, feeling, need/interest,
request/problem-solve) and other active-constructive communication skills.
3. Keep your eye on your goals (resolution and often then relationship) rather than
winning. If you are “teaching someone a lesson,” it is time to regroup.
4. Watch out for linked BATNAs. Even if you are “right” – can the other party hurt
you? If so, how badly?! Court is not fun and not cheap. Being estranged from
someone you love may be worse.
5. Learn to separate facts/observations from judgment/assessment, particularly if
cross-cultural situation. Don’t assume intent based on your cultural framework.
6. When something goes awry, focus on your behaviors – NOT the other party’s.
7. Make a unilateral concession to move from power/rights back to interests.
8. Consider contingent contracts.
9. Rather than giving up, see if parties are amendable to mediation.
10. Read Crucial Conversations every few years or more frequently.
Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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This means differentiating our observation from evaluation. We
need to carefully observe what is happening free of judgment and
to clearly see the behaviors and conditions that are affecting us.
This means differentiating what we are feeling from what we are
thinking. We need to identify and express internal feelings in a way
that does not imply judgment, criticism, shame, or blame.
We need to understand the universal human needs or foundational
interests (e.g., sustenance, trust, understanding, respect, safety) in
us that are not met in relation to what is happening….with
authenticity and without strategy.
Last, clearly and specifically, request what you want (rather than
what you don’t want). State this in a way that is truly a request, not
a demand (a demand would include attempts to motivate, however
subtly, out of fear, guilt, shame, obligation, etc. rather than out of
willingness, compassionate giving, and an acceptance of others’
autonomy). I recommend a modified Step 4: In this modified
version, your request might be for the other person to engage in
problem-solving with you to find a solution that is acceptable to all
parties. A simple request is easy when a problem is single issue or
lacks complexity, but frequently what we need is the other parties’
input and ideas to craft a solution which creates value for all
involved. For complex problems, you won’t know what the “right
ask” is without talking it over. Your request should make it clear
that you want to meet the other parties’ needs as well as your own
and should emphasize shared concerns, when possible.
Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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• The inseparability of integrative and distributive aspects of
negotiation –value that has been created must be claimed
• Tactics that claim value can impede its creation
• Strategies that help create value also make you vulnerable
to claiming tactics
Claiming Value (Distributive)
Creating Value (Integrative)
• Win/Lose
• Win/Win
• Argue Rights
• Reconcile Interests
Exert Power
• Goal: My outcome
• Goal: Joint Outcome
• Single Issue
• Multiple Issues
• No Future Relationship
• Long-term Relationship
Claiming Value (Distributive)
Creating Value (Integrative)
• Open high
• Cooperate
• Establish positions
• Build trust
• Demand concessions
• Listen
• Signal closeness to goal by concession
• Share info about interests &
• Ask for info about interests &
• Propose multiple options of
equivalent value
Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Assume I am looking to buy a car at two identical cars at two dealerships – one is within 5 miles of
my home and the other is 40 miles away. In discussing the car with the “far-away” dealer, let’s say
the negotiated price is $12,500 and I don’t believe it is going to go any lower.
When negotiating with the “close-to-home” dealer, my BATNA is to buy the car from the other
dealership at $12,500. However, my reservation price is not necessarily $12,500 because I value
purchasing the car from a local dealer (easier in terms of service and repair work; there is the added
cost of gasoline and time to get out there; and perhaps, I’d rather shop in my home town). So, how
much do I value the benefits of going with the local dealer? Well, that is something I have to figure
out and certainly depends on the person.
The key question is: At what price point am I indifferent between driving the 35 miles to buy the car
and buying the car locally? Also service is better (or at least nicer) when you take your car to the
dealership where you purchased it so that is a factor as well.
In my case, my reservation price would be $13,250. It would be worth $750 more to me to get the
car locally. Obviously, I should not disclose my RP but it is good for me to know this so I don’t
walk away from a deal that I prefer over my BATNA. Now that I have this number, I will focus all
my attention on my goal and exploring other dealers/alternative makes/models.
My goal is to get the car for $12,000 since I did my homework on Edmunds.com, etc. and think this
is an aggressive but reasonable goal. It is just slightly above invoice. My opening offer for the car will
be $11,000 (this is below invoice) – I think any lower will sound absurd.
Do not reciprocate with your own rights based assertions
Do not get personal
Reciprocate (return the threat) but couple it with a proposal for an interest-based suggestion
“You know, suing us could compromise your reputation as we could just as easily go to others and let them
know how you have cheated us… but this is not going to solve the problem. Right now, we don’t have any
money to pay you, and even if you sue us, you will not be able to collect. Why don’t we try to find a way to
discuss this problem that might give us both a chance to get what we really want out of this situation?”
Comment on the process (and perhaps call for a cooling-off period)
“We could yell at each other for the next hour, but I don’t think that will be productive, would you consider….”
“We can argue all afternoon as to whether it was appropriate for X to have made this decision. We may never
agree about that. Why don’t we see if we can move on and come up with our next steps? What about…”
Do not make unilateral concessions (don’t reward rights and power)
Provide low-cost “rights and power” back ups
Conventional arbitration: less costly than court or private adjudication
Med-arb (Raiffa suggested hybrid: mediator serves as arbitrator if mediation fails)
Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Interest Assessment
What issues are most important? (List
all and put them in order of importance)
What interests do the parties have in
Do they value certain issues differently?
If you do not know the other party’s
interests, can you find out?
(Best Alternative to the Negotiated
Agreement. What is the best alternative if
this conflict is not resolved?)
Reservation price
(The cost of implementing your BATNA
+/- intangibles. Walkaway point.)
(What is your ideal outcome?)
Information Assessment
What information is known and/or
agreed upon?
Can you ask questions to get more
complete information?
If you are making assumptions, test them
by asking questions.
Other issues pertaining to information
Structural Assessment:
What are each party’s sources of power?
Can the structure be modified to
increase odds of a positive outcome?
Is ratification required?
Where is lack of authority a significant
problem? What process can be used to
address the lack of authority?
Are there resource limitations affecting
the conflict?
Are there resources each party could
bring to the table
How many parties are involved?
What constituents are not at the table?
Would it help if they were at the table?
Q&A or S&O or combination
Place/time for feedback?
Strategy for handling any emotion (theirs
and yours)
*Note if the information is based on assumptions, estimates, or facts
Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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Getting to Yes
The Point of the Deal: How to Negotiate When Yes Is Not Enough
Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When
Stakes are High
Getting Past No: Negotiating Your Way from Confrontation to Cooperation
Negotiating Globally, 3/e
, R. Dealing with Difficult People: 24 lessons for Bringing Out the Best in
Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
The Essentials of Job Negotiations: Proven Strategies for
Getting What You Want.
We Can Work It Out: Resolving Conflicts Peacefully and Powerfully.
A Behavioral Theory of Labor Negotiations, 2/e
The Four Agreements
The Truth about Girls and Boys: Challenging Toxic Stereotypes about Our Children.
The Second Shift
Dance of Anger
Magic 1-2-3
Siblings Without Rivalry
Lisa M. Amoroso, lamoroso@dom.edu
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