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Lesson 13: Deserts
1. Roughly defined, dry lands are regions where the annual __________________________ is less than the
potential for __________________________________.
2. Drylands include semiarid land, referred to as ____________, and arid land referred to as ____________.
3. Rising air creates ___________ pressure, while descending air creates ______________ pressure.
4. Rising air cools, and cold air cannot hold as much moisture as warm air, so rain is very common in regions of
5. Because the equatorial region receives the most direct sunlight, the air warms and rises creating the
equatorial ____________ pressure belt with abundant rainfall.
6. As air continues to rise along the equator, the air aloft (now cold and dry) is driven north or south and
begins to sink around ___________degrees north and south of the equator in what are known as the
________________________ high pressure belts.
7. As this cold dry air descends in the subtropical high pressure belts, it warms, and since warm air can hold
more ______________________ than cold air, precipitation is rare.
8. Most deserts are located in the regions of the subtropical high pressure belts, and since these high
pressure belts are at relatively low latitudes, collectively the deserts are called _________ latitude deserts.
9. Deserts can form in the middle latitudes as well. One way is if the moist air is forced up by topographic
highs such as mountain ranges. As the air lifts, it cools and the moisture if precipitated out on the
windward side of the mountain range, so as the air descends down the other side of the mountain (the
leeward side), the dry air compresses and warms leaving little chance for precipitation to occur. A desert
formed in this way is referred to as a _________________________________ desert.
10. The __________________ (northern, southern, eastern, or western) portion of the U.S. is mostly dry lands.
11. Most streams in deserts generally remain dry except during or shortly after a rain event, therefore these
streams are referred to as ___________________________ streams.
12. The #1 agent of erosion in a desert is ___________________________.
13. Some streams can flow through a desert year round, but the source waters do not originate in the desert.
These streams are referred to as _______________________ streams.
14. An exotic stream flowing through the Great Basin, Mohave, and Sonoran Deserts is the
15. Deserts that have mountains and valleys often have ________________________ drainage, meaning that
runoff flowing from the mountains simply flows into the valleys and pools. There is no river system taking
the water out of the region.
16. Shallow lakes that form on the valley floors of deserts are referred to as ____________________lakes.
17. If playa lakes dry, they are simply called playas, unless they precipitate deposits of salt on the surface of
the land when the water evaporates. These salt deposits are referred to as salt ___________________.
18. Semi-circular shaped deposits of alluvium can form at the mouth of desert mountain valleys. These fanshaped deposits of sediment are called __________________________ fans.
19. Alluvial fans can coalesce and form a skirt of sediment along the base of a mountain front. This is called a
20. When mountain peaks get worn down and alluvium fills around them, the peak is called an
21. When the wind blows in the desert, sand typically travels by ________________________ (jumping up and
falling back down while being transported by the wind), while silt typically travels in
_______________________________ creating dust storms.
22. Deposits of windblown silt are referred to as ____________________.
23. When wind blows sand and silt out of the region, the process is called _____________________________
and the result in a depression in the terrain called a ___________________________.
24. If gravel is in the sediment, blowing away the sand and silt will result in a concentration of gravel on the
surface. This gravel is known as desert ___________________________________.
25. Large stones sitting idly on the desert floor for long periods of time can become sculpted by sandblasting.
These wind-sculpted stones are called _____________________________.
26. Rock formations sculpted by sandblasting are called ________________________________.
27. If wind is blowing from one prominent direction, a sand dune will have a gentle slope on the
____________________ side, and the leeward side is steeper and referred to as the _____________ face.
28. Sand being deposited on dunes often results in _______________________ bedding.
29. ________________________ are a type of sand dune that forms where there is limited sand and the wind
is blowing in one primary direction.
30. Barchans are crescent-shaped dunes with the tips of the crescent pointing in the direction the wind blows
and the _______________________ is on the inside of the crescent form.
31. When more sand is available, barchans may coalesce into ________________________________ dunes.
32. Abundant sand with one wind direction will often result in dunes with their crest perpendicular to the wind
direction. These dunes are called ______________________________ dunes.
33. Two wind directions at roughly 90o and abundant sand can result in dunes with a slip face on both sides
that are aligned at about 45o to either wind direction. These dunes are called
34. Like barchans, _____________________________ dunes are also crescent-shaped, but their tips point into
the wind, and their _______________ face is on the outside of the crescent shape.
35. Multiple wind directions generally results in the formation of ___________________dunes.
36. Desert _______________________ is a dark stain that develops very slowly on rock faces in desert regions.
37. The inadvertent alteration of sensitive land to desert conditions is called ____________________________.
Lesson 13 (Deserts)
4 dune formed frommultiple wind directions
5 dune with horns (tips) pointing into the wind
8 largest desert in world
10 most desrt streams are called this because they seldomhave water in
12 straight dunes with crests parallel to major wind direction
14 dunes with crests perpendicular to the direction the wind blows
16 a sandblasted (wind sculpted) rock
17 this drainage can result in the formation of playa lakes
20 deposit of wind-blown silt
21 atmospheric condition where most deserts are located (2 words)
22 a dark stain found on many rocks in desert regions (2 words)
23 the process of jumping grains common during sand migration by wind
24 gravel left behind on the desert floor when sand and silt have been
removed by wind (2 words)
1 sloping skirt of sediment along mountain front formed fromcoalescing
2 shallow lake common in some desert valley floors
3 dune with horns (tips) pointing in the direction the wind is blowing
6 erosion of sand and silt by wind
7 collective name for deserts located around 20 to 30 degrees north or
south of the equator (2 words are hyphenated)
9 semi-circular streamdeposits that format the mouth of a desert
mountain valley (2 words)
11 side of a sand dune also known as the slipface
13 sloping layers commonly formed in migrating sand dunes (2 words)
15 desert found on the leeward side of a mountain range
18 arid regions that receive less than 10″ of rain a year
19 silt is generally carried by wind in this fashion
WORD BANK: Alluvialfan, bajada, barchan, crossbeds, deflation,
desertpavement, deserts, desertvarnish, ephemeral, highpressure,
interior, leeward, loess, longitudinal, lowlatitude, parabolic, playa,
rainshadow, sahara, saltation, star, suspension, transverse, ventifact.
Lesson 14: Shorelines
1. The region between low and high tide is called the __________________________.
2. Waves transfer _____________________.
3. Most water waves are generated by ___________________.
4. The distance the wind blows over the water is called the _______________________.
5. In deep water waves travel by an __________________ motion.
6. There is no water motion from a passing wave below _________________________.
7. Wave base is approximately ½ ____________________ (distance from crest to crest of adjacent waves).
8. As waves enter shallow water they slow down from frictional drag at their base. This causes the waves
to lean ____________________, shorten in ______________________, and build in wave
__________________. The result is the formation of _____________________ in the surf zone.
9. Waves are the dominant source of _______________________ erosion.
10. Rip rap are large stones used to protect an area against ___________________ erosion.
11. Waves often _____________________ (change direction) as they come into shore.
12. Wave refraction causes wave energy to be directed on _____________________ and away from bays.
13. As headlands are undercut by wave erosion they may form a sea _______________, and if the top of
the arch collapses it forms a sea ________________.
14. When headlands have been planed off to sea level by wave erosion, the result is a wave-cut
15. If a wave-cut platform is elevated by either uplift of the land or lowering sea level, it is called a marine
16. If waves come on shore at an angle, the sand it moves will be washed up the shore at that angle, but the
backwash carrying the sand back out will carry it straight out. Wave after wave, the sand moves along
the shore parallel to the shoreline. This is called beach (littoral) ________________.
17. The same process creates a water current that flows parallel with the shoreline. This current, called the
____________________________ current, can also move sand parallel to the shoreline.
18. When sand migration causes a sand bar to build out into the water, the sand bar is called a __________.
19. If a spit builds all the way across a bay, it is called a ________________________ bar.
20. Because waves often refract around an island, a sand bar may develop between the island and mainland
if the island is close to shore. The sand bar is called a _______________________.
21. __________________ islands follow the general shape of the shoreline, and the water behind them is
generally called a sound or lagoon.
22. A tidal _______________ is where water often flows into a lagoon, and the strong current may result in
the formation of a tidal _________________.
23. ____________ currents are strong currents that flow away from the shore.
24. The safest way to escape a rip current is to swim __________________ to the shoreline.
25. Coral reefs connected to land are called ________________________ reefs.
26. If a lagoon develops between the land and reef, it is called a ______________________ reef.
27. If an island subsides leaving a circular shaped reef, it is called an _________________.
28. __________________ are hard stabilization structures built perpendicular to the shoreline and used to
keep channels open for ships.
29. __________________ are hard stabilization structures built perpendicular to the shoreline and used to
prevent sand from moving out of the area by beach drift and longshore currents.
30. __________________ are hard stabilization structures built offshore parallel to the shoreline to create
a quiet zone behind the structure.
31. __________________ are hard stabilization structures built along the shoreline to prevent coastal
erosion and flooding.
32. Beach _____________________________ is an alternative to building hard stabilization structures and
involves bringing sand into the area to maintain beach size.
33. _________________________ coastlines typically have an irregular shaped shoreline because when the
land lowers or sea level rises, it floods river channels creating ________________________.
34. Because the sediments in the near to offshore are relatively uniform, when sea level drops or the land
rises, it creates a relatively straight shoreline. This is typical of an _____________________ coastline.
35. Tides result from the _______________________ pull of both the moon, and to a lesser extent, the sun.
36. ____________ tides have the greatest tidal fluctuation with very high high tides, and very low low tides.
37. Spring tides occur twice a month (every two weeks) when the sun, moon, and earth are aligned. You
know when spring tides occur because it is during a ____________ moon (when you see the whole
moon), and during a ___________ moon (when there is no moon at night).
38. ____________ tides have the least tidal fluctuation with very low high tides, and very high low tides.
39. Neap tides also occur twice a month midway between full and new ______________.
40. There are typically ___________ high tides and ____________ low tides daily.
41. On the west coast of the U.S. the tidal pattern is _________________, meaning that one high tide is
lower than the other, and one low tide is higher than the other.
42. Some restricted bodies of water only have one high tide and one low tide daily. This diurnal tidal
pattern is common in the Gulf of ______________________.
43. In other regions of the world hurricanes are called __________________ or _________________.
Lesson 14 (Shorelines)
2 a flat bench-like rock surface left behind by an eroding sea cliff (3 words)
4 distance wind has traveled over the open water
7 drowned river valley fromrising sea level or subsiding coastline
8 = 1/2 wavelength (2 words)
13 Padre is a good example of this (2 words)
15 walls built perpendicular to the shoreline to prevent deposition of sand
in a navigational channel
16 rock wall built on land to prevent erosion of the shoreline
18 current produced as the tides goes out
19 currents running parallel to the shoreline in the surf zone
22 a ridge of sand that completely crosses a bay (2 words)
23 the bending of waves as they approach the shoreline
24 ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland
25 zone between low and high tide
26 these tides result in the least amount of tidal fluctuation
1 tidal current flow advancing onto land
3 dangerous currents flowing seaward (2 words)
5 daily changes in the elevation of the ocean surface caused by the moon
6 seaward projecting areas of the shoreline
9 an isolated remnant of rock produced by wave erosion (2 words)
10 distance fromcrest to crest
11 barrier build at right angle to shoreline to trap the sand moving by beach
12 the vertical distance between the crest and trough of a wave (2 words)
14 tides that occur when the sun, moon and Earth are aligned
16 zone of turbulent water created by breaking waves
17 a wall build offshore and parallel to shoreline to create a quiet water
zone behind it
20 what hurricanes are called in the western Pacific
21 elongated ridges of sand that project out fromthe land into the mouth
of an adjacent bay
WORD BANK: Barrierisland, baymouthbar, breakwater, ebb, estuary,
fetch, flood, foreshore, groin, headlands, jetties, longshore, neap,
refraction, ripcurrents, seastack, seawall, spits, spring, surf, tides,
tombolo, typhoon, wavebase, wavecutplatform, waveheight,
Lesson 15: Energy and Mineral Resources
1. Human _______________________ is increasing exponentially.
2. Currently, there are over 7 ___________________ people on earth.
3. Most population growth is happening in ____________________________ (developed or
4. China uses more _______________ than the U.S., but per capita, the U.S. uses more.
5. The largest amount of energy use in our homes is from heating and ____________________.
6. The higher the SEER rating of an appliance, the more ______________________ it is.
7. The three nonrenewable fossil fuels are:
8. Petroleum and natural gas form from ancient ___________ and ____________ life that was buried in
ocean sediments millions of years ago.
9. Because petroleum and natural gas are mobile and migrate up through rocks, they generally need a
structural or stratigraphic _______________ to contain them.
10. A structural trap in the form of an upfold is called an _______________________.
11. Seismic _______________________ helps to identify structural traps underground.
12. There are 42 _____________________ in a barrel of oil.
13. Depending on the type of oil, roughly about ½ of a barrel can be refined into ____________________.
14. Crude oil is heated to very high temperatures and then allowed to condense into different liquids as it is
slowly cooled in a process known as ___________________________________.
15. The price of oil is largely controlled by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, otherwise
known as ______________________.
16. The U.S. imports the largest percent of its oil from ________________________.
17. In the first ½ of 2011 ExxonMobil paid more in _____________ than it made in profits.
18. Which U.S. state produces the most crude oil? _________________________
19. The largest supply of natural gas is found in the _____________________________
20. A natural gas formation located about a mile below Fort Worth is the _____________________Shale.
21. To extract oil and gas from otherwise impermeable (tight) formations, and make a profit doing so,
typically requires ___________________________ drilling and _______________________ (fracturing
22. Coal is formed from plant debris that accumulates in anoxic waters such as a _________________.
23. If peat is considered pre-coal material, the four grades of coal that form from increased burial are:
24. Coal can be mined underground, or on the surface in an open pit or by ____________ mining.
25. Strip mining requires first removing the _____________________ then replacing it after the coal has
26. Which country has the largest proven reserves of coal? __________________________________
27. Most coal in the U.S. is either __________________________ or __________________________.
28. Burning coal is mostly used to generate ________________________________.
29. ___________________ has large deposits of oil (tar) sands.
30. The U.S. contains a large supply of oil shale in a formation called the ______________ River Shale.
31. The nuclear reactor located near DFW in Glen Rose is called Comanche ____________.
32. Nuclear reactors require a specific isotope of uranium known as Uranium-___________.
33. One concern with generating electricity using nuclear energy is deposing of the radioactive __________.
34. Gas hydrates are a mixture of natural gas and ice found on the ocean floor and in permanently frozen
ground called __________________________.
35. The byproduct of burning ________________ fuels is CO2, known as carbon dioxide.
36. Carbon dioxide allows solar energy to pass through the atmosphere to warm the earth, but the
wavelengths the earth emits are scattered and do not easily pass back out of the atmosphere. This is
the reason carbon dioxide is called a __________________________ gas.
37. Name a country whose carbon dioxide emissions have been lowering over the last decade. __________
38. Name a country that produces more carbon dioxide than the U.S. ______________________
39. What two sectors of the U.S. economy is most CO2 generated?
40. Which region (NE, SE, NW, SW) of the U.S. is best suited for generating electricity using solar power?
41. Which state is #1 in generating electricity using wind power? ________________
42. Wind and solar are both clean and renewable forms of enegy, but because the wind doesnt always
blow and the sun doesnt always shine, they are not a …
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