Gastrointestinal

Synthroid 100 mcg daily
Nifedipine 30 mg daily
Prednisone 10 mg daily

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Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.
APA citation 3 to 5 References within 5 years

Patient HL comes into the clinic with the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The patient has a history of drug abuse and possible Hepatitis C. HL is currently taking the following prescription drugs:
Synthroid 100 mcg daily
Nifedipine 30 mg daily
Prednisone 10 mg daily
Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.
Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patiArcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ent’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Starr, S., & Raines, D. (2011). Cirrhosis: Diagnosis, management, and prevention. American Family Physician, 84(12), 1353–1359.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay

Week 4: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders
As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter patients who will present with symptoms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Of special note, is the consideration that most symptoms concerning the GI tract are non-specific and therefore, diagnosing diagnoses of the GI tract require thoughtful and careful investigation. Similarly, hepatobiliary disorders may also mirror many of the signs and symptoms that patients present when suffering from GI disorders.

How might you tease out the specific signs and symptoms between these potential disorders and body systems? What drug therapy plans will best address these disorders for your patients?

This week, you examine GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You will review a patient case study and consider those factors in recommending and prescribing a drug therapy plan fo your patient.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Evaluate diagnoses for patients with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders
Justify drug therapy plans based on patient history and diagnosis
Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe a treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom.

Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Assignment, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

To Prepare
Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment
Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay
Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors, such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.
Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
By Day 7 of Week 4
Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.
Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2018). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice providers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay

Chapter 62, “Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease” (pp. 703–714)
Chapter 63, “Laxatives” (pp. 715–722)
Chapter 64, “Other Gastrointestinal Drugs” (pp. 723–735)
Chapter 78, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 867–886)
Chalasani, N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Charlton, M., Cusi, K., Rinella, M., . . . Sanya, A. J. (2018). The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology, 67(1), 328–357. Retrieved from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/hep.29367

This article details the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Review this article to gain an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology as well as the suggested pharmacotherapeutics that might be recommended to treat this disorder.Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay

Sample Free Essay Assignment Solution:

Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders
Vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea are symptoms that occur together pointing to a possible health problem. The patient could be experiencing the symptoms since Prednisone can trigger them. Another possible cause is drug abuse which can also cause malfunction of the body organs leading to nausea and vomiting. However, one of the conditions that can cause the three conditions is gastrointestinal disorder. The disorder causes the three symptoms due to inflammation of the intestines after the infection (Muradali & Goldberg, 2015). Therefore, the possible health condition that the patient is suffering from is gastrointestinal disorder.
The appropriate drug therapy for the patient is to continue taking Synthroid 100 mcg daily since it will help restore the thyroid hormone (Mace, Tehan & Marshall, 2015). The drug is necessary to treat the possible Hepatitis C. The patient also requires another drug which will be used to treat the gastrointestinal disorder. One of the best drugs includes promethazine 25mg daily. The dosage is necessary since it will treat the disorder while taking care of the drug abuse history of the patient (Mace, Tehan & Marshall, 2015). The drug does not produce sedating effects which are essential for a patient who has a history of abusing drugs that could have affected the liver. It is necessary for the patient to reduce taking Nifedipine 30 mg daily as well as Prednisone 10 mg daily. For instance, the reduction is necessary since Nifedipine is used to treat hypertension, yet the patient does not have hypertension (Muradali & Goldberg, 2015). For example, Prednisone is known to cause side effects including nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Drug therapy will involve taking the drugs for three days. The patient will return the clinic for further evaluation of the health condition to determine the effectiveness of the prescribed drugs.Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay

PHARMACOTHERAPY IN GASTROENTERITIS 2 Pharmacotherapy in Gastroenteritis A patient comes to the clinic with symptoms of diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The patient has a history of drug abuse and possible Hepatitis C. The patient is currently taking Synthroid 100 mcg daily, Nifedipine 30mg daily and Prednisone 10 mg daily. The patient has a possible gastroenteritis infection. Basing on the medical history, the patient is on Prednisone which is a synthetic corticosteroid which has a possibility of reducing the immune system and thereby predisposing the patient to gastrointestinal infection (Guarino,
Guandalini, & Vecchio, 2015). Gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the digestive tract
particularly the stomach and the intestines. The infection can result from a bacterial, viral or a parasitic infection. Patients often present with loss of appetite, bloating, nausea and vomiting and diarrhea. Treatment of gastrointestinal infection depends on the medical history, physical examination, blood and stool tests. In most cases, the treatment depends on the cause. Drug Therapy Antiemetics According to Chow, Leung, & Hon (2014), the use of antiemetics helps in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. The use of antiemetics is recommended since nausea and vomiting is unpleasant and the distressing symptom increases the likelihood of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Metoclopramide is a dopamine receptor antagonist approved for decreasing the afferent impulses to the chemoreceptor trigger zone thereby reducing the gastric sphincter tone and increasing the intestinal transit time. Antimotility Agents (Antidiarrheal) Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay
PHARMACOTHERAPY IN GASTROENTERITIS 3 These agents are essential in the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate diarrhea which is non-bloody. As such, the drug helps in the prevention and the treatment of dehydration associated with diarrhea. Agents in this category may include bismuth subsalicylate as well as loperamide (Imodium) which is vital as an adjunct to rehydration as well as for symptomatic relief. The most preferred drug is loperamide. The drug acts by altering the intestinal motility and thereby giving time for the reabsorption of water in the intestines thus reducing the frequency and volume of stools. Probiotics Flora Norm (Saccharomyces boulardii) is one of the agents that are used in the management of acute diarrhea of various etiologies. The agent is live non-pathogenic yeast which is recommended as a probiotic (Canziani et al., 2017). The drug alters the composition of gut flora and inhibits the action of the pathogenic microorganisms. As such, it helps in the maintenance of the healthy balance of intestinal flora through the production of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid which in turn increases the acidity levels. Research indicates that the drug as well produces bacteriocins which naturally kill undesirable microorganisms. The drug is in the form of powder and is administered orally directly or mixed with water or beverage. Oral Rehydration Salts These are agents which are used for the treatment of dehydration. The ORS contains sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sucrose and trisodium citrate dihydrate. The agent is reconstituted with water and taken orally. The amount given is dependent on the frequency and intensity of diarrhea.
PHARMACOTHERAPY IN GASTROENTERITIS 4 Zinc Supplements In gastroenteritis, patients present with diarrhea which is at times associated with severe zinc deficiency. Research indicates that the use of zinc significantly reduces the complications associated with diarrhea (Khan & Sellen, 2011). Zinc is an essential micronutrient used for cell growth, immunity, protein synthesis as well as intestinal transport and water and electrolyte transport. The recommended zinc salts used includes the zinc sulfate, zinc gluconate or zinc acetate. Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay
PHARMACOTHERAPY IN GASTROENTERITIS 5 References Canziani, B. C., Uestuener, P., Fossali, E. F., Lava, S. A., Bianchetti, M. G., Agostoni, C., & Milani, G. P. (2017). Clinical Practice: Nausea and vomiting in acute gastroenteritis: physiopathology and management. European Journal of Pediatrics, 1-5. Chow, C. M., Leung, A. K., & Hon, K. L. (2014). Acute gastroenteritis: from guidelines to real life. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 3, 97. Guarino, A., Guandalini, S., & Vecchio, A. L. (2015). Probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 49, S37-S45. Khan, W. U., & Sellen, D. W. (2011). Zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhea.
Biological, behavioral and contextual rationale. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health
Organization Gastrointestinal And Hepatobiliary Disorders Essay

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