The question regarding the embezzlement led to me having to do critical thinking and I had to place myself in the hypothetical shoes of my co-workers to determine my answer. In the end this was one of the few where I chose “strongly agree”. I did rely on legal parameters for a couple of the questions, especially the ones regarding the pediatric patient that required the life-saving blood transfusion. While I believe my choices may conflict with few, I still would not feel comfortable having my choices made public and I would choose to remain anonymous. I can’t really say I know how a moral inventory like this one would impact my current clinical site because I haven’t been there very long, but I do believe that the job I discussed earlier regarding the nurse that forged the signature would actually benefit from having their ethics and morals evaluated and scrutinized.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

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During this survey, I found it difficult to choose strongly agree or strongly disagree for that reason of it not being black and white. I mostly chose moderate responses.
The subject area talking about the nurse practitioner and the opioid addicted patient having a miscarriage after abruptly stopping her pain medications triggers some personal emotions. It triggered some emotions, because as a nurse practitioner student, I placed myself in that situation. One can give advice to the patient, but it is truly what the patient does outside of the clinic that impacts that person’s health in the long run. Whether it has dire consequences or not. I was able to remain objective in a way, because I also thought of physicians and other healthcare workers that might be in a similar situation.
Many of the decisions were difficult to make. Especially the Jehovah’s witness child that needed a lifesaving blood transfusion.
I did employ critical thinking or resolution strategies to determine a response. When it came to physician assisted suicide. I offered a resolution of trying out a few treatments to see if it works or not, because sometimes not all physicians are correct. And patients do live longer than the allotted time given to them. Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay
I did rely on policy and legal parameters to make decisions, because it is very important to stick to the policy. For example, during that scenario with the transgender child taking hormones. Though there might be conflicting views, it is very important to stick to the policy and aid in this child’s care. And treat the child like everyone else.
I do not think I would feel comfortable making my answers public. I would rather remain anonymous.
Working in the ER, I have dealt with similar situations. Such as knowing when to keep going during a code or stop due to the patient’s quality of life after the fact. Or the durable power of attorney/ family member would like the patient to be full code and other family members know that the patient would like to be a no code.
I think a moral inventory would impact my clinical practice by making me more aware of ethical issues at hand. And being prepared to deal with them should they arise. Sometimes it is so easy to get caught up with day to day work that we forget that there might be ethical issues that need to be discussed.

The goal of nursing is to work for the good of the patient. Nursing can
therefore be regarded as an ethical practice (Gastmans, Dierckx de Casterle &
Schotsmans, 1998). This means that the ethical dimension of nursing care is
not restricted to specific situations but is rather an integral part of all nursing
care (Bishop & Scudder, 1990). Ever since the beginning of modern nursing,
starting with the Nightingale era, ethics has been regarded as a vital part of
nursing. In her Notes on Nursing, Nightingale points to the importance of
listening to patients, putting their needs first and upholding confidentiality
(Nightingale, 2010). Today we would describe these as ethical actions. They
were in some sense formalized in 1953, when the International Council of
Nurses (ICN) launched its first code of ethics (ICN, 1953). But laws and other
regulations on a national level, such as the Swedish Health and Medical Service
Act (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, 1982:763), also regulate how nurses
and other healthcare staff should act. This means that nurses have to navigate
among the ethical values of different stakeholders: patient, organization,
profession and society. When these values are threatened or clash, nurses have
to take a stand on how to deal with this. The aim of this thesis is to explore and
describe what nurses find ethically problematic and morally distressing in their
work, the factors contributing to the arising of ethically problematic situations
and the actions reported taken in order to handle them, thus creating an ethical
climate.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay
Ethical problems
This thesis takes its starting point in nurses’ experiences of situations they
consider ethically problematic and morally distressing. A number of different
concepts are used in the literature to describe situations that are in one way or
another ethically problematic. Some of these concepts are ethical problems,
ethical dilemmas, ethical conflicts, ethical concerns and ethical issues. However,
although these situations are labeled differently their core seems to entail a
person encountering situations in which values, norms or principles are
threatened or in conflict and a decision has to be made on how to act. In the
literature, such as in Thompson, Melia, Boyd and Hornsburgh (2006),
differences between concepts are described. However, in research studies
motivation is seldom given for the use of a specific concept, and they seem to be
used quite interchangeably. Due to an apparent lack of consensus on what
concept to use when for ethical problems, and as a consequence of taking as a
starting point the nurses’ experiences and thereby relying on an inductive
perspective, the nurses were given the preferential right to define what
situations they considered ethically problematic.
In this thesis no distinction is made between the two terms “ethics” and
“morals”. They can be regarded as overlapping, and distinctions are mostly
made when they are used in a more formal way (Thompson et al., 2006). With
regard to the aim of this thesis, a distinction was not considered necessary.
Ethical problems in nursing care
Ethical problems for nurses can arise in situations such as when decisions are to
be made on life-sustaining treatment, but also in other situations when there is
a question of what is in the patient’s best interest. Sometimes it is difficult to
decide how much information should be given to patients and next of kin,
leading to ethical problems concerning informed consent. Policies intended to
facilitate can sometimes give rise to ethical problems if different policies apply,
supporting different actions. Factors that can contribute to the arising of ethical
problems are, among others, hierarchical structures and a lack of different kinds
of resources.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

The area of decision making regarding life-sustaining treatment is one where
nurses experience ethical problems. This mainly concerns how long futile
treatment should be continued (Bunch, 2001; Çobanoglu & Algier, 2004) and
what ethical criteria can be used to terminate life-sustaining treatment
(Hermsen & van der Donk, 2009). In a setting like intensive care there can be
tension between nurses’ personal values regarding what constitutes a good death
and the purpose of intensive care, i.e. saving life (Cronqvist, Theorell, Burns &
Lützén, 2004). The decision on the course of treatment is experienced as being
further complicated when the patient whom the decision concerns is decisionincompetent (Enes & de Vries, 2004). Ethical problems involving the
withholding or withdrawal of treatment also can give rise to conflict between
nurses and physicians, according to nurses. Nurses have advocated withdrawal
of treatment sooner than physicians (Torjuul & Sörlie, 2006). This has been
explained by differences of perspective, whereby physicians are the ones who
make the decisions while nurses are the ones who carry out these decisions
(Oberle & Hughes, 2001). However, other studies (Eliasson, Howard,
Torrington, Dillard & Phillips, 1997; Svantesson, Sjökvist, Thorsén &
Ahlström, 2006) have shown contradictory results, with high agreement
between nurses and physicians regarding aggressiveness of treatment for the
patients they care for.
Ethical problems in the form of divergent opinions also arise in other situations,
for example when patients refuse the care offered (Karlsson, Roxberg, da Silva
& Berggren, 2010) or make, from a professional perspective, irrational decisions
(Hermsen & van der Donk, 2009; Sandman & Nordmark, 2006). It can also
happen that nurses and next of kin have different opinions on what is in the
best interest of the patient, or that different family members disagree on the
patient’s best interest (Sandman & Nordmark, 2006).
Nurses have also told about ethical problems related to giving information and
informed decision (Killen, 2002; Ulrich et al., 2010). This comprises
difficulties involving how much information a patient or next of kin should be
given (Torjuul & Sörlie, 2006) or having to get a patient sign agreement for
treatment although it is uncertain if the patient understands what this means
(Shapira-Lishchinsky, 2009). Information can also be withheld from a next of
kin at the request of the patient (Torjuul & Sörlie, 2006).
Although policies can be a guide in decision making when facing an ethical
problem, they can sometimes be perceived as constraining and as giving rise to
ethical problems (Oberle & Tenove, 2000). An ethical problem can consist of a
conflict between different policies or between a policy and a judgment about
what should be in the patient’s best interest (Sandman & Nordmark, 2006).
As there is a considerable amount of research on what situations nurses find
ethically problematic, what may contribute to the rise of an ethically
problematic situation is more sparsely discussed here. However, some of the
factors that have been pointed out are nurses’ position in the hierarchical
structure of professions (Oberle & Hughes, 2001) and physicians’ way of
handling situations involving decision making concerning life-sustaining
treatment (Cronqvist et al., 2004). Lack of resources, such as equipment,
finances (Gaudine, LeFort, Lamb & Thorne, 2011) time, staffing and private
rooms (Torjuul & Sörlie, 2006) might also contribute to there being ethical
problems regarding prioritization.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay
Factors affecting the handling of ethical problems
When confronted with an ethical problem, nurses have to decide what actions
to take in order to handle it. In a review, Goethals, Gastmans and de Casterlé
(2010) have described this as two interrelated processes, beginning with
reasoning about how to deal with the ethical problem. In this process the nurses
observe, analyze and judge the problem, which results in a decision. Thereafter,
a process of implementing this decision in clinical practice follows. During both
these processes there are several factors that affect the nurses, some personal and
others contextual. Among the personal factors are nurses’ values, convictions,
experiences and skills. Examples of contextual factors include opinions and
expectations of others, rules, routines, procedures and guidelines (Goethals et
al., 2010).
The process of reasoning cannot be reduced to a cognitive activity as it is
contextually embedded, and it is the personal relationship between nurses and
patients that forms this context. Factors that facilitate this process include
education, guidelines and standards, supportive colleagues and experience at the
same workplace. However, if the nurses experience a stressful working
environment with complex patient situations, insufficient resources such as
time, and dominance within the medical profession, this hinders the process of
reasoning (Goethals et al., 2010). A personal factor that is believed to affect the
reasoning process is moral sensitivity (Lützén, Dahlqvist, Eriksson & Norberg,
2006). This has been described as a personal capacity that is the result of
personal experience. Moral sensitivity involves more than relying on one’s
emotions when identifying the moral values in a conflict situation. It means
having an attention to moral values and an awareness of one’s own role and
responsibility in the situation (Lützén, 1993).
In the process of implementing a decision into clinical practice, it has been
shown that this can prove to be difficult due to contextual factors that limit
nurses’ ability to act in the desired way. These include hierarchical relationships,
traditional structures of power, not being involved in decision making, poor
cooperation with physicians and feelings of not being respected as a
professional. However, if the nurses are involved in ethical decision making
with a mandate in ethics deliberations and have a positive collaboration with
physicians this facilitates the implementation process. Besides these contextual
factors, personal factors such as knowledge, experience, risk taking and boldness
facilitate this process (Goethals et al., 2010).
To summarize, research on nurses’ conceptions of ethical problems has shown
that these are experienced in a number of situations, those regarding lifesustaining treatment among the most prominent. However, it is less well
described what factors are perceived as contributing to the rise of an ethical
problem, which is important when it comes to how a certain ethical problem
should be dealt with, and what actions are taken in order to handle the
situation. All situations of ethical difficulty are not experienced as ethical
problems, however; at times it might be difficult to know how to act, but there
is at least acting space. If this acting space is lacking, a situation might be
experienced as morally distressing.
Moral distress
The term moral distress was coined in 1984 by Jameton, who viewed it as one
of three categories into which ethical problems arising in a hospital context
could be sorted. The first of these categories was moral uncertainty, which he
described as “when one is unsure what moral principles or values apply, or even
what the moral problem is” (1984, p.6). The next category of ethical problems
was, according to Jameton, moral dilemmas that “arise when two (or more)
clear moral principles apply, but they support mutually inconsistent courses of
action” (1984, p.6). Moral distress, finally, “arises when one knows the right
thing to do, but institutional constraints make it nearly impossible to pursue
the right course of action” (1984, p.6). Jameton later (1993) made a distinction
between two forms of distress, namely that of initial and reactive distress. Initial
distress is felt in the form of frustration, anger and anxiety when confronted
with institutional obstacles, while reactive distress is the result of not acting
upon the initial distress (Jameton, 1993).
The process that results in moral distress
Kälvemark Sporrong (2007) has described the process that could have moral
distress as a possible reaction as starting with a moral stressor. She suggests that
in order to be a moral stressor, in the case of healthcare services, “it has
something to do with the professional role as care-giver for someone, of not
being able to fulfill obligations towards the patient” (2007, p.26). The
experience of a moral stressor, according to Kälvemark Sporrong (2007), forces
the individual to deal with it, i.e. ethical decision making. Possible outcomes
include the situation involving the moral stressor not being solved; it being
solved but the individual not being satisfied with the outcome; or it being
solved and the individual being satisfied with the outcome. A possible reaction
to the first two outcomes can be moral distress (Kälvemark Sporrong, 2007).Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay
This model resembles the one described by Wilkinson (1987/1988). In this
model, the phenomenon of moral distress includes both the experience of a
situation in which a moral decision not being followed through gives rise to
painful feelings and disequilibrium, and effects such as coping behaviors
(successful or unsuccessful) and immediate and long-term effects on the care of
the patient (Wilkinson, 1987/1988).
Research on moral distress within healthcare
Although the definition of moral distress is profession neutral, it has been
researched mostly among nurses but also among physicians (e.g. Førde &
Aasland, 2008), social workers (Brazil, Kassalainen, Ploeg & Marshall, 2010)
and auxiliary nurses (Kälvemark, Höglund, Hansson, Westerholm & Arnetz,
2004). The predominant method of data collection has been the questionnaire,
with the Moral Distress Scale (Corley, Elswick, Gorman & Clor, 2001; Corley,
Minick, Elswick & Jacobs, 2005), based on Jameton’s conceptualization of
moral distress, being the most used. Situations in which moral distress has been
shown to arise are, among others, those when the level of staff is considered
unsafe (Corley et al., 2005), when a lack of staff forces the personnel to
prioritize between equally important tasks (Kälvemark et al., 2004) and when
there is disagreement regarding the appropriate level of treatment (Hamric &
Blackhall, 2007).
Corley et al. (2005) found that higher age was associated with lower levels of
moral distress, but Mobley, Rady, Verheijde, Patel and Larson (2007) and
Pauly, Varcoe, Storch and Newton (2009) found no statistically significant
associations between moral distress and demographic variables. Frequency of
moral distress has been shown to be negatively correlated to perceptions of
ethical climate (Corley et al., 2005) and positively correlated to emotional
exhaustion (Meltzer & Huckabay, 2004). Feelings associated with the
experience of moral distress include anger and guilt (Deady & McCarthy,
2010) as well as helplessness (Harrowing & Mill, 2010) and self-blame (Kelly,
1998). Avoiding patient interaction (Deady & McCarty, 2010; Kelly, 1998),
working fewer hours or leaving the unit (Kelly, 1998) or even leaving nursing
(Corley et al., 2005; Kelly, 1998) are strategies nurses have used in order to
cope with moral distress. One study (Kälvemark Sporrong, Arnetz, Hansson,
Westerholm & Höglund, 2007) reports on the use of a structured education
and training program in ethics, which aimed at decreasing the moral distress of
healthcare sector professionals, but moral distress did not change significantly
after the training program. The research on moral distress has largely been
concerned with the negative experiences of moral distress, but according to
Hanna (2004) moral distress can involve aspects such as development of moral
character if it is handled well.


While the term “medical care” designates the intention to identify and to understand disease states in order to be able to diagnose and treat patients who might suffer from them, the term “health care” has a broader application to include not only what is entailed by medical care but also considerations that, while not medical, nevertheless exercise a decided effect on the health status of people. Thus, not only are bacteria and viruses (which are in the purview of medicine) of concern in the practice of health care, so too are cultural, societal, economic, educational, and legislative factors to the extent to which they have an impact, positive or negative, on the health status of any of the members of one’s society. For this reason, health care workers include not only professional clinicians (for example, physicians, nurses, medical technicians, and many others) but also social workers, members of the clergy, medical facility volunteers, to name just a few, and, in an extended sense, even employers, educators, legislators, and others.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

For a person to be considered healthy, in the strictest sense of the term, is for that person to exhibit a state of well-being in the absence of which are any effects of disease, illness, or injury as might concern the person’s physiological, psychological, mental, or emotional existence. It is fair to say that no one could ever achieve this level of “complete health.” Consequently, the health status of any given person, at any given time, is best understood in terms of the degree to which that person’s health status can be said to approximate this ideal standard of health.

In the preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization, “health” is defined as: “…a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being[,] and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” This definition of “health” can also be said to embrace an ideal, but it does so by representing health as a positive, rather than as a negative, concept.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

Additional distinctions concerning definitions of “health” include that between what is sometimes referred to as a natural, or biological, view of health (and of disease) as contrasted with a socially constructed view. The former view entails that health, for all natural organisms (to include the biological status of human beings), is to be correlated with the degree to which the natural functions of the organism comport with its natural evolutionary design. On this interpretation, disease is to be correlated with any malfunctions, that is, any deviations of the organism’s natural functions from what would be expected given its natural evolutionary design. The adoption of this view of health by health care practitioners results in identifiable standards, or ranges, of “normalcy” concerning health care diagnostics, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and so forth, the upshot of which is that any deviation from these norms is sufficient to pronounce the patient as “unhealthy,” if not as “diseased.” By contrast, the socially constructed view of health is determined by some social value(s) such that any deviation from the socially accepted norm, or average, for our species is considered to be a disease or a disability if the deviation is viewed as a disvalue, that is, as something to be avoided. For example, whether homosexuality is to be seen as a disease state, specifically, as a mental disorder, as the American Psychological Association officially held it to be for the longest time throughout the 20th century, until they reversed their position in 1980. Based on their own explanations of each of these definitional decisions, it would appear that their former official position was value-based in a way in which their latter position was a correction (Tong, 2012).Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

Similar distinctions concerning the concept of health, and its resultant definition, include the representation of health as “normative,” as contrasted with a “normal biological functioning” representation. Anita Silvers argues that organizations that set public health policy by their very nature incorporate (even if unconsciously) any of a number of social dimensions of health in their official definitions of “health.” Of course, to do this has practical effects that typically serve the interests of the organization in question. Any definition of “health” that uses a limited standard, and that might be appropriate for some segments of the larger human population to which the definition is being applied, but that of necessity is not reflective of some other of the segments of that same human population might render people in these latter segments of the human population as “pathological,” literally, by definition, despite the fact that with a more objective definition of “health” they would be deemed members of the healthy population.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

Moreover, some such organizations implement classification systems that allow for both biological and social considerations to measure health outcomes for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of health care programs when compared to each other. Such comparisons are then used to decide, for example, what type of disease prevention measure(s) to implement or which particular sub-populations get selected for curative measures. According to Silvers, whatever the consensus in any particular society is, concerning what the word “health” designates, determines the health care services to be provided as well as the specific beneficiaries of such services. This conflation of normative and biological factors of consideration in the conceptualization and the ultimate definition of “health” by these organizations that set public health policy leads one to believe that such a definition is exclusively biological, that is, objective, and thereby to be accepted without question (Silvers, 2012).Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

Michael Boylan surveys a good number and variety of what he calls recent popular paradigms concerning the concept of health, as follows: 1) functional approaches to health, including “objectivism,” as associated with an “uncompromised lifespan,” and the “functionalism/dysfunctionalism” debate; 2) the public health approach to health; and 3) subjectivist approaches to health, which do not restrict themselves to physiological health but focus more broadly on human “well-being.” After demonstrating respects in which each of these approaches to our understanding of health fail, he proposes a “self-fulfillment approach” to human health. Central to this approach, and as a first-order metaethical theory, is the “personal worldview imperative,” which requires of each of us to develop a worldview that is both comprehensive and internally coherent but that is also good and one that we would strive to actualize in our daily lives. In other words, according to this imperative, such a worldview must 1) be comprehensive, 2) be internally coherent, 3) connect to a normative ethical theory, and 4) be, at a minimum, aspirational and acted upon. This personal worldview imperative is designed as an independent and objective means of assessment in order to avoid some of the inherent flaws of the well-being approach. In conjunction with what Boylan recommends as a “personal worldview of cooperation” (as a more holistic way of viewing the world), this personal worldview imperative would, arguably, constitute the most comprehensive and objective approach to our understanding of human health (Boylan, 2004 and Boylan, 2012).Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

Despite the fact that “health care” is a term that reflects the more recent phenomenon of the practice of health care as expanded beyond the practice of medical care, ethical concerns related to health care can be traced back to the beginnings of medical care. While this would take us back to primitive cultures at the time of the origin of human life as we know it, the first known evidence of ethical concerns in the practice of medicine in Western cultures is what has been handed down as the Corpus Hippocraticum, which is a compilation of writings by a number of authors, including a physician known as Hippocrates, over at least a few centuries, beginning in the 5th century, B.C.E., and which includes what has come to be known as the Oath of Hippocrates. According to these authors, medical care should be practiced in such a way as to diminish the severity of the suffering that illness and disease bring in their wake, and the physician should be acutely aware of the limitations concerning the practical art of medicine and refrain from any attempt to go beyond such limitations accordingly. The Oath of Hippocrates includes explicit prohibitions against both abortion and euthanasia but includes an equally explicit endorsement of an obligation of confidentiality concerning the personal information of the patient.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

Additional codes of ethics concerning the practice of medicine have also come down to us: from the 1st century A.D., known as the Oath of Initiation, attributed to Caraka, an Indian physician; from (likely) the 6th century A.D., known as the Oath of Asaph, written by Asaph Judaeus, a Hebrew physician from Mesopotamia; from the 10th century A.D., known as Advice to a Physician, written by Haly Abbas (Ahwazi), a Persian physician; from the 12th century A.D, known as the “Prayer of Moses Maimonides,” Maimonides being a Jewish physician in Egypt; from the 17th century A.D., known as the Five Commandments and Ten Requirements, written by Chen Shih-kung, a Chinese physician; from the 18th century A.D, known as A Physician’s Ethical Duties, written by Mohamad Hosin Aghili, a Persian; and many more.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

In 1803, Thomas Percival in England published his Medical Ethics: A Code of Institutes and Precepts, Adapted to the Professional Conduct of Physicians and Surgeons, which included professional duties on the part of physicians in private or general practice to one’s patients. The founding of the American Medical Association in 1847 was the occasion for the immediate formulation of standards for an education in medicine and for a code of ethics for practicing physicians. This Code of 1847 included not only “duties of physicians to their patients” but also “obligations of patients to their physicians,” and not only “duties of the profession to the public” but also “obligations of the public to physicians.” From the 19th century to well into the 20th century, societies or associations of medical doctors formulated and published their own codes of ethics for the practice of medicine.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

A good number of medical codes of ethics were formulated and adopted by national and international medical associations during the middle part of the 20th century. In an effort to modernize the Oath of Hippocrates for practical application, in 1948 the World Medical Association adopted the Declaration of Geneva, followed the very next year by its adoption of the International Code of Medical Ethics. The former included, in addition to an enumeration of a physician’s moral obligations to one’s patients, an explicit commitment to the humanitarian goals of medicine. Since then, virtually every professional occupation that is health care-oriented in the U. S. has established at least one association for its membership and a code of professional ethics. In addition to the American Medical Association, there is the American Nurses Association, the American Hospital Association, the National Association of Social Workers, and many others.Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

2. Methods of Moral Decision-Making
Methods of moral decision-making are concerned, in a variety of ways, not only with moral decision-making but also with the people who make such decisions. Some such methods focus on the actions that result from the choices that are made in moral decision-making situations in order to determine which of such actions are right, or morally correct, and which of such actions are wrong, or morally incorrect. Other methods of moral decision-making concentrate on the persons who commit actions in moral decision-making situations (that is, the agents) in order to determine those whose character is good, or morally praiseworthy, and those whose character is bad, or morally condemnable. The theorists of such methods deal with such questions as: Of all of the available options in a particular moral decision-making situation, which is the morally correct one to choose?; What are the particular virtues of character that, in conjunction, constitute a good person?; Are there certain human actions that, without exception, are always morally incorrect?; What is the meaning of the language used in specific instances of moral discourse, whether practical or theoretical?; What is meant by a specific moral concept?; and many others. Ethics And Morals Evaluated And Scrutinized In Clinical Practice Essay

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