Diabetic Microvascular Complications Essay

Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing primarily vascular complications that contribute to morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients. Poor glycaemic control leads to vascular complications that affect large (macrovascular), small (microvascular) vessels or both. Macrovascular complications include coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke. Microvascular complications contribute to diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (kidney disease) and retinopathy (eye disease).Diabetic Microvascular Complications Essay

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Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes

Diabetic patients due to common metabolic, coagulation and vascular abnormalities are more prone to arteriosclerosis and ischemic complications (Beckman et al., 2002). Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by migration of T lymphocytes and monocytes to the area of arterial wall injury. This process plays central role in the pathogenesis of the macrovascular disease leading to luminal stenosis (narrowing of arterial walls) in the peripheral or coronary vascular system (Boyle, 2007; Wagenknecht et al., 2003; Wagenknecht et al., 1997). Large-vessel atherosclerosis is thought to result from the hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycemia which are characteristic for DM. Clinical manifestations include angina pectoris (chest pain) and miocardial infarcts (MI), transient ischemic attacks (TIA), strokes, and peripheral arterial disease. In diabetic patients, production of cytokines diminishes synthesis of collagen in vascular smooth muscle cells and increases production of matrix metalloproteinases, resulting in an increased tendency for plaque destabilization and rupture (van der Wal and Becker, 1999).Diabetic Microvascular Complications Essay

The chronic complications of Diabetes mellitus result majorly from the damage of the blood vessels – damage of the small blood vessels leads to micro-vascular disease while the damage to the arteries causes macro-vascular diseases. It has been shown that the disease causes damages to almost everybody organ a complication commonly known as “end-organ damage.” As nurses, we are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that diabetic patients receive a detailed plan of care that is aimed at preventing the occurrences of the complications associated with diabetes. In addition, we ought to educate patients that have been diagnosed with diabetes on how the complications of diabetes and how they can avoid them.

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Micro-angiopathy (damage of the small blood vessels) causes the following complications: Diabetic cardiomyopathy. This is the impaired relations of the heart muscles and filling of the heart with blood leads which results in heart failure. This happens due to damage of the heart muscles from the presence of the blood glucose in large quantities. Diabetic Microvascular Complications Essay Diabetic nephropathy, this is kidney disease which involves the damage of the kidney vessels by the sugar that is filtered from the blood which can result to the chronic renal failure. Diabetic retinopathy, complications such as blindness and reduced vision can come up from the damage of the retina`s blood vessels and nerves. It can also lead to slow blood flow and weak vision from the new growth of capillaries in the retina which are crumbly and have reduced quality. Diabetes mellitus also causes damage to the nerves resulting in the development of peripheral myopathy whereby an individual ceases to perceive stimuli from the environment (Sen, Chakraborty & De, 2016).

Macrovascular diseases with atherosclerosis accelerator present cardiovascular diseases come up:

Coronary artery disease also develops predisposing a patient to a heart attack. Joint and foot problems, low flow of blood to the limbs, collective with the damage of the nerves and reduced sensation results in the easy damage of the feet and hands. Such patients end up developing diabetic foot which is normally managed by cutting the foot. Moreover, stroke mainly the ischemic type is also bound to develop. An increase in blood sugar can induce skin illnesses such as fungal and bacterial infections, diabetic dermopathy and rashes on the skin as well as rough texture skin patches.Diabetic Microvascular Complications Essay

Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing generally vascular difficulties that play a role in morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients. Poor glycaemic control leads to vascular complications that affect large (macrovascular), little (microvascular) boats or equally. Macrovascular issues include heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke. Microvascular complications lead to diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (kidney disease) and retinopathy (eye disease).

Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes

Diabetics due to prevalent metabolic, coagulation and vascular abnormalities will be more prone to arteriosclerosis and ischemic complications (Beckman et al., 2002). Vascular disease is a serious inflammatory disease characterized by migration of Capital t lymphocytes and monocytes to the area of arterial wall injury. This process takes on central position in the pathogenesis of the macrovascular disease bringing about luminal stenosis (narrowing of arterial walls) in the peripheral or heart vascular program (Boyle, 3 years ago; Wagenknecht ain al., 2003; Wagenknecht ainsi que al., 1997). Large-vessel atherosclerosis is considered to result from the hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycemia which are characteristic for DM. Clinical manifestations consist of angina pectoris (chest pain) and miocardial infarcts (MI), transient ischemic attacks (TIA), strokes, and peripheral arterial disease. In diabetic patients, creation of cytokines diminishes activity of collagen in vascular smooth muscle cells and increases development of matrix metalloproteinases, causing an increased trend for plaque destabilization and rupture (van der Wal and Becker, 1999). Diabetic Microvascular Complications Essay

… use sufferers are much young in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes, and stroke is mostly attributed to elderly people.

Presence of microvascular problems like microalbuminuria, diabetic retinopathy and autonomic neuropathy further increase the exposure to possible stroke (Cheung et ing., 2007a; Miettinen et ing., 1996; Toyry et al., 1996; Cohen et ‘s., 2003; Rocco et approach., 2010).

Diabetic neuropathy

The term neuropathy is derived from two Latina words: “neuro, ” talking about the neurological, and “pathy, ” that means disease. Diabetic neuropathies are normal complications in diabetes that could cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetic neuropathy is usually directly linked to the axon length and duration of nerve fibers experience of hyperglycaemia. According to type of neuron fibers affected diabetic damaged nerves is categorized as: (Edwards et ‘s., 2008; Casellini and Vinik, 2007) Diabetic Microvascular Complications Essay

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