Child Development Theories Essay Paper

The Importance of Theory and Research in Child Development In order for us to understand how a child develops we must conduct research on theories that we believe and others believe to be true. When we do understand the development of children we will be able to understand the skills and behaviors of children. This will help us to understand why they will not eat certain foods or how children of different ages react differently to certain things.

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One of the major controversies in developmental psychology centres whether development is continuous or discontinuous. Those psychologists who support the continuous view of development suggest that development involves gradual and ongoing changes throughout the life span, with behaviour in the earlier stages of development providing the basis of skills and abilities required for the next stages.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

Not all psychologists, however, agree that development is a continuous process. Some view development as a discontinuous process. They believe development involves distinct and separate stages with different kinds of behaviour occurring in each stage. This suggests that the development of certain abilities in each stage, such as specific emotions or ways of thinking, have a definite starting and ending point. However, there is no exact time at which an ability suddenly appears or disappears. Although some types of thinking, feeling or behaving may seem to appear suddenly, it is more than likely that this has been developing gradually for some time.

When an infant arrives

Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas 1997). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, 1992). It is important to recognize the complexity of human development and the theories that explain human development.

Through out history there have been theories about human development. The writer will look at the different Theorie’s related to Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, and Cognitive Theory’s. Psychoanalytic meaning behaviour development of the psyche, Humanistic meaning to become fully functional, cognitive meaning, thinking. The writer will look at the following theorists Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Abraham Maslow of their theories through out time.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

THEORIST

Freud was a theorist who wanted to look at humans and how they developed. He believed strongly that there were five sexual stages in life as follows the Oral, Anal, Phallic, latency and Genital. from when you were born though till you died. Freud also believed that many emotions were caused by unconcious sexual desires, some of which originated in infancy

Eriksons theory was that development resulted from the interaction between inner instincts and outer cultural and social demands: hence the name psychosocial stages. . The stages are as follows, basic trust verses mistrust, autonomy verses shame, and doubt, initiative verses inferiority, identity verses role confusion, intimacy verses isolation, generatively verses self absorption and stagnation, ego integrity verses despair. So from learning these he believed you could gain hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care and wisdom.

Jean Piaget was a swiss scientist whose theories shaped the thinking of several generations of developmental psychologists. Piaget was only interested in ” how does thinking develop”(Bee pg.35). A pivotal concept in Piaget’s model and the hardest to grasp is that of schema Piaget believed there were four stages in the thinking process, these were the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

1. Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory

Erik Erikson was an important figure in the fields of psychoanalytics and psychological development. He was also the famous coiner of the popular phrase “identity crisis”. Central to much of his work was his theory on psychosocial development. As it became known, Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory produced a framework for organizing human growth, through all stages of life, into eight distinct stages. Key to the outcomes of the child stages as well as those afterward are the principles of social interaction and experience.

2. Bowlby’s Attachment Theory

John Bowlby was another groundbreaking psychologist and theorist in matters of development. He also crafted one of the earliest known child development theories which still sees prominent use and citation today. In Bowlby’s Attachment Theory, he asserted that much of child development is based on the innate need of children to form attachments. These attachments may involve any number of people, places, or things and ultimately have a substantial effect on onward development patterns throughout life.

3. Freud’s Psychosexual Developmental Theory

According to Encyclopedia Britannica, Sigmund Freud “may justly be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age.” While creating the modern field of psychoanalytics, Freud also went on to make many other significant contributions to the sciences including the assertion of multiple, important theories. Freud’s Psychosexual Developmental Theory was one of these important products in which Freud explained that child experiences, experienced at different ages in childhood, directly go on to dictate personality and behavior patterns in the later adult. This general theory has since birthed virtually countless studies, disciplines, and other academic and business establishments.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

4. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory is commonly relied upon today across many industries and professions. This theory states that while much child learning and development does come from direct experience, much also comes from modeling and simple observations. Bandura himself is another important and very pioneering figure in psychology who is currently the Professor Emeritus at Stanford University.

5. Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory states that children, quite simply, think differently than adults. While this may seem obvious to some, this was a revolutionary theory that went on to provide the foundations for several other theories to come. Essentially, this theory divided the child life into four separate categories, or stages, each of which carries its own important qualities and vulnerabilities. Jean Piaget, the theory’s author was a notable psychologist and scientist of his time.

Related Resource: 10 Most Affordable Online Developmental Psychology Online Programs

The study of child development is a vastly important one that helps us today to understand the greater human development process itself. Just like in many other scientific disciplines, theories themselves are some of the critical pillars of the science and study of child development. These five above-mentioned theories are among some of the most pertinent in the field to date.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

Neurological research shows that the early years play a key role in children’s brain development.

Babies begin to learn about the world around them from a very early age – including during the prenatal, perinatal (immediately before and after birth) and postnatal period.

Children’s early experiences – the bonds they form with their parents and their first learning experiences – deeply affect their future physical, cognitive, emotional and social development.

Optimizing the early years of children’s lives is the best investment we can make as a society in ensuring their future success.

Abraham Maslow looked at the humanistic side of development he believed there was a third force. Maslow focused on human experience, problems, potentials and ideals. . He believed that self-image, self-evaluation and frame reference as to how humans perceive themselves and experience the world.There have been people in the past, who believed that there was no God and that the world was a product of chance, but these were regarded as rather foolish. Things began to change in the Nineteenth century, when Darwin wrote his book “Origin of Species”, in which he concluded, based on similarities between different species that they must have evolved from common ancestors. He proposed a mechanism that could explain the evolution of different life forms and named it “Natural Selection”. This, he proposed, was a very slow and random process, which accumulated small incremental changes over millions of years, to shape the life as we know it. Even with these ideas, Darwin did not explicitly deny existence of God and carefully avoided being termed an atheist. However, his theory became popular and widely accepted by atheists, who had finally found a justification for their belief and became its evangelists. They maintained and propagated that the theory was an absolute fact, supported by scientific findings. With the scientific appeal attached, the idea spread rapidly and fools of past, came to be ranked with  intellectuals. Since then, several stories have been written, to explain evolution of species from one-another. These stories are widespread and continue to evolve to this day, with little or no evidence1.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

Evolutionary evangelicals also found support from those who had rebelled against religions – either due to false beliefs2, like multitude of gods, or due to the strict laws and rituals they mandate. For this group, it not only offered an alternative belief, but also freed them of all religious commitments. Together, they waged a war against all religions and against God Himself, producing literature to support their belief and discredit all that opposed it. In years that followed, this belief was adopted by many individuals and nations, and the world witnessed moral decadence and killings like never before.

In spite of all this, there have always been people, both within scientific community3 and outside it, who debated, critiqued and refuted both the theory and the belief4; but their voice seemed to be drowning in the noise of evolutionary evangelicals. For a sincere seeker of truth, however, the issue becomes clear with little observation and reflection. Below are few points, which will help those with intellect, in clearing the fog around the issue and make the truth stand out إن شاء الله. As for those who have closed their eyes and ears, then who can make the dead hear? It is as if they have been blinded by evolution!

1.      The Balance

The world is full of different cyclical systems, which are essential for life on earth. These systems are delicately balanced, such that they can repeat without breaking the other systems. Imagine if water always evaporated and never came back as rain! Or the burned oxygen was never recovered from atmosphere! Or if all land was boiling lava, or there was no lava in earth! Or the stars never exploded to form new ones! In any of these scenarios, life as we know it would cease to exist. It defies logical thinking, to assume that all these cycles emerged and converged by sheer chance to make life a possibility. The balance exists not only on earth but also in the universe at large. One, who says that all this is result of random events, is surely lower in intellect than one who says that all the mechanisms in an airplane could come about and be maintained purely due to random events.Child Development Theories Essay Paper
Surely, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, succession of the night and the day, and the ship that sails in the sea carrying that which benefits people, and what Allah sends down from sky of water then brings to life with it the earth after its death and had spread in it all kinds of animals and variation of winds and clouds held between sky and earth, are signs for those with intellect.
(Al-Qur’an 2:164)

 

2.      Origin and Repetition

Speaking of life, it’s known that Cells are the building blocks of life and contrary to general understanding are quite complex, filled with nano-machines performing variety of operations including decoding and execution of instructions. How, when, why and where did the first cell originate is unknown to us, but it is certain that the origin of cell was non-evolutionary5.

Even if the first cell formed somehow, how did it come to know about self-replication mechanism? Did the first cell come equipped to sustain its kind? If not, when and how did this mechanism evolve? Being able to clone or reproduce is essential for continuity of species. It is evident, that first cell must be capable to replicate, without which the cell would have degraded to dust and there would be no possibility of further evolution.

Main Discussion

Freud’s theories were that children have sexual pleasures and fantasies long before they reach adolescence. one of his theories is the idea that behaviour is governed not only by conscious but by unconscious processes, according to freud, is an instinctual sexual drive he called the libido present at birth and forming the motive force behind virtually all our behaviour. According to this theory of infantile sexuality, developed in the first five or six years occurs in three psychosexual stages. Freud also believed that a parent’s influence is crucial in helping the child through the stages of psychosexual development. Freud also argued that personality has a structure that develops over time there are three parts, the id the ego and the superego.in freuds theory, these three parts are not present at birth..

Apart from Freud the greatest influence on the study on development of Psychoanalytical behaviour has been Erik Erikson, (Erikson Erikson,1950,1959,1980b,1982,Erikson,Erikson & Kivnick,1986: Evans,1969). Erik Erikson (1902- ), Erikson shared most of Freud’s basic assumptions but differed from him on several key points, by his own comprehensive theory of development he believed that there were three major aspects to development, that they are centered, not only on body parts but on each person’s relationship to the social enviroment.these according to Erikson were, Somatic: Physical strengths and weaknesses, personal: Life history and current development stages, Social: Cultural, historical and social forces.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

Piaget did not follow Freud or Erikson theories he believed in the natural processes, the theories Piaget believed are that life begins with a small repertoire of simple sensory or motor schemas such as looking, tasting touching, hearing and reaching The sensorimotor stage went from birth to two years of age where the child’s intellectual development was largely non-verbal, but is trying to co-ordinate movements with information from the senses. The preoperational stage from two years to seven years is that the child is intuitive but unable to see other people’s views, the child’s ego is the center of its world. The concrete operational stage is from seven years to eleven years this is when the child masters the concept of conversation, time, space and number,(Coon pg. 100). The formal operations stage eleven years and up Thinking is based on more abstract principals,and hypothetical possibilities. The older the adolescent they are more capable of inductive and deductive reasoning. From these theories Piaget concluded that you need cognitive thinking to develop not Freuds motive force.

Maslow’s theories were developed to disprove that Freud and Eriksons theories were wrong by humans using motive force and somatic theories. Maslow

believing them to be negative , looked at another perspective theory to Freud , Erikson and Piaget. He was interested in the development of motives and needs, which he divided into two subsets, deficiency motives and being motives. Deficiency motives involve drives to maintain physical or emotional homeostasis, such as the drive to get enough to eat and drink, the sexual drive to obtain sufficient love or respect from others, (Bee pg. 34).

Maslow also believing humans to be independent and fundamentally motivated. To achieve maximum potential to grow and develop. capabilities. (Maslow 1970 pg. 401). Maslow (1968, 1970a,1970b, 1971), used the term self-actualization to describe this ultimate goal in life, (Bee pg. 33). Maslow extended his study to a population of college students. Selecting students who would fit his definition of self-actualizers, these students showed no signs of maladjustment and were making effective use of their talents.

Conclusion

The differences between psychoanalytical, cognitive thinking and humanistic behaviour are describing humans as individuals of a collection of hidden impulses that need to be expressed. Cognitive theorists see the human as a thinker, organizing and adapting experiences so they make sense. The Humanist theorist focus on what the person may become rather than where they are at the present time. From the theories discussed in this paper, it is clear that how complex human development is. No one theory successfully describes human growth and development in all of it complexity.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

in the world they are helpless tiny humans who depend on adults for every need from love, to feeding them. It is amazing how these tiny babies grow into adults able to make decisions and become self-dependent. There are many theories about how children develop and what roles the environment plays, what people affect their lives and how events can shape their personalities. Some of these children have and easy life and some have a harder time making that journey to adulthood.Determinants and mechanisms of child development are reflected in theories in western psychology which can be classified into three general approaches based on the suggested determinants of child development:
– the nativist (maturational) approach to child development sees genetically predetermined maturation as the major determinant of children’s development and the behavior is the result of heredity. The promoters of this theory (Bühler, 1930, Gesell, 1933 and Hall, 1904) claim that the environment influences children’s development depends on children’s genotypes rather than on the characteristics and quality of their environment;
– the behaviorist (environmental) approach to child development: Skinner, 1953; Thorndike, 1914 and Watson, 1925, attributed all the child’s developmental accomplishments to the child’s environment. Whereas behaviorists tend to view children as “fabricated” by the environment, nativists tend to view them as “fabricated” out of genetically predetermined maturation;
– the constructivist (interactional) approach to child development: the major promoter of this theory is Piaget (1936/1959). Piaget holds that the major determinant of children’s development is their activity of exploring the external world and that “children come across new environmental phenomena and try to “assimilate” them into their mental schemas (that is, into their existing ways of thinking)”1.
These three theories do not see a major difference between the determinants of animal and human development. In contrast, Vygotsky and his followers argue that these determinants are different because of the dominant role of the social environment in human development.2

Theories abound around how people develop emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually. This essay will examine the theories of five leaders on the subject of development.
Jean Piaget believed in four stages of development that were fairly concrete in description (Atherton, 2010).
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years old) – Children begin to make sense of the world around them based on their interaction with their physical environment. Reality begins to be defined.
2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) – Concrete physical stimuli are needed in order for a child to develop new concepts.
3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11) – As a child accumulates experience with the physical world, he/she begins to conceptualize to explain those experiences. Abstract thought is also emerging.
4. Formal operations (beginning at ages 11-15) – Conceptual reasoning is present and the child’s cognitive abilities are similar to an adult’s (Atherton, 2010).Child Development Theories Essay Paper

Piaget was firm in his concept of these stages. He was convinced that a person had to progress from one stage to the next, that this was a natural biological process influenced by the environment and experiences. Biology limits the point in time, but the environment determines the quality of development.
Lev Vygotsky stages of development were not defined by age or biology. Social and cultural experiences were the basis for his theory. Consciousness was an end product of social interactions (Kearsley, 1994-2010). The history of the child’s society and his own personal history determine how the child thinks. Language is crucial for development as it is with words that a child conceptualizes and makes sense of the world (Schütz, 2004). A precept of Vygotsky’s theory was the zone of proximal development or ZPD. ZDP is the difference between what a child is able to solve on its own (actual developmental level) and what a child can learn only with the help or experience of another person.Through my studies of Early Childhood Education, I have come to form my own philosophy on child development. In HCCF 467: Philosophies and Theories of Child Development, I took the Teacher Belief Inventory which assisted me in expressing my individual philosophy on child development. This inventory is a list of 30 statements for which you rate how strongly you agree or disagree. A number of points are given to each answer given, and then these scores are added up in three categories: cognitive-developmental, cultural-training/behaviorist, and maturationist-socialization. According to the inventory, if your scores are less than 10 points apart, the teacher is not a strong adherent of any position. None of my scores were more than 10 points apart. I feel that the inventory is a valid representation of my beliefs on child development. Through studying the many theories in child development, I have found that my philosophy on child development is based on behaviorist, cognitive-Interactionist, and Maturational theories (Peters, Niesworth, & Yankey, 1985).
According to the inventory, the highest score reflects one’s bias towards a theory. Although my scores didn’t differ greatly, the area I scored highest was cognitive developmental. The statement I strongly agreed with from this category was:
“Teacher provides child with situations that make her or him experiment, explore, and solve problems on his or her own.” (Peters, Niesworth, & Yankey, 1985)

How important is good self-esteem in the development of children: extremely important!! Having good self-esteem is a key component in the healthy development of children and adolescents (Nuttall, 1991). A person with high self-esteem feels like they can accomplish anything they set their minds to, whereas a person with low self-esteem feels that they are unimportant and nothing they do will make a difference (Nuttall, 1991). How a person feels about themselves affects how they will act, this is true in adults and adolescents as well as small children (Nuttall, 1991) There are a myriad of influences that can make a difference in the self-esteem of children today: parents, teachers, friends, and society in general all have an effect on a child’s development (Bukatko, 2008). Those closest to children have the largest influence on their self-esteem; this is why it is very important that parents, teachers, friends and other family members are a positive driving force in how a child feels about themselves (Nuttall, 1991). Child Development Theories Essay Paper
Psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner developed his own theory on child development called the “ecological systems theory (Oswalt, 2008). This theory states that there are four different systems of a child’s environment that effect their development (Oswalt, 2008). The first of these systems is the microsystem, this is the smallest system and is made up of the child’s immediate environment and how they interact with those in their environment (e.g. their relationship with their parents) (Oswalt, 2008). The second level is the mesosystem, this system explains how the different parts of the microsystem work together for the good of the child (e.g. parents supporting a child’s extracurricular activities)In this assignment I am going to describe a child observation that I have done in a nursery for twenty minutes in a play setting. I will explain the strengths and weaknesses of naturalistic observation through the key developmental milestones based in Mary Sheridan (2005) check-list and provide a theoretical explanation to support the naturalistic observation. There are multiple factors in a child’s development. Parents have a responsibility, as well as a privilege, to contribute to every milestone. Most parents stress over physical and mental stages so much so that play-time is ignored. By making decisions that sacrifice play parents hinder their social development. Parents must take action and encourage their youth to play more, before childhood is lost forever. Play-time is an essential part of early childhood development as well as their most primitive form of expression. In an article titled “The Importance of Play” by Bruno Bettelheim, he refers to Sigmund Freud’s thoughts that play is a child’s first step in attaining “cultural and psychological achievements

 

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First of all I would like to explain why the child observation is important for social workers. It is important because it focus on the problems that arise when a child‘s situation is not taken seriously and consequently have harsh consequences for both worker and child (Climbié Report, 2002). Observation is something that leads to formation of hypotheses and gives new insights about the child’s world. Child observations assist social workers understand, through assessments, the children’s communication between them and their carer or parents. The aim of the observation is to understand the child and his/her world (Briggs, 1992). What is development? Development is “A progressive increase in the function of the body.” (growth and development book) As a nurse it is vital to understand what development means and how people develop, especially children. In this essay I will talk about two very important developmental theories, Erikson and Freud. In addition, compare their similarities and their differences. Erikson was a psychologist who was greatly influenced by Freud. Although influenced by Freud there are some differences in there developmental stages. Erikson believed that development in an individual was molded by society, culture, and environment. While Freud’s belief was that development is in some way is influenced by the fixation of sexual interest of different areas of the body. The stages in Erikson’s development theory outline how important social experiences can shape us. While Freud’s theory is mainly based on ones sexuality. Additionally the other significant difference between Erikson’s and Freud’s theories is the outcome of a particular stage. The three major motor developmental theories are maturation, sensory processing and dynamic. Maturation refers to the biological growth processes that begin at conception and lead to the maturity of the body. These innate (inborn) changes occur in the body, brain and nervous system automatically in an orderly sequence at about the same time for most children. Because these changes are innate, they are not influenced by environmental experiences. Many of our basic abilities are closely tied to maturation. Maturation consists of three stages of motor development which are Equal Lateral (both sided motor movements), Lateral (one-sided motor pattern movements) and Bilateral (opposite side or cross pattern motor movements).Child Development Theories Essay Paper

Attachment is an important aspect through the developmental stages of a child. It is the process through which an individual develops specific bonds with others (). John Bowlby theorized Attachment Theory, which focuses on a behavioral system that demonstrates the response of an adult when a child signals which can lead to a strong trusting relationship (). Through attachment infants develop strong emotional bonds with others, which can result in a more positive outcome later in life.
Throughout the chapters of The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog, Dr. Perry describes personal experiences based on the lives of individuals he has encountered. The correlation among the characters described in Skin Hunger, The Coldest Heart, and The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog, showcased different alternatives to attachment theory in regards to the individual’s upbringing; each, demonstrating the affects of the four key factors for developing a secure attachment.
Through the development of attachment, an individual goes through five stages, first is birth to 3 months, which an infant uses different cues such as smiling, crying, and cuddling to maintain a close bond with the caregiver; second, 3 to 6 months which the infant is responsive to familiar people; third, 6 to 9 months, which an infant sees contact and physical touch with objects; fourth, 9 to 12 months, which an infant forms expectations of the caregiver’s response to distress; fifth, 12 months to older where the child uses certain behaviors to influence object of attachment that will help satisfy needs for protection ().Did you know that in 2014, shoplifting and worker’s theft cost the retail industry a loss of thirty-two billion dollars (Wahba, 2015)? According Wahba “a common misperception about shoplifting is that retailers can ‘afford’ the loss of a candy bar or a pair of jeans” (2015). This type of reasoning certainly does make more sense when explained through the context of a criminological theory. For example according to the Rational Choice theory individuals weigh the costs and benefits associated with a criminal and or deviant act and then make a conscious choice. Other criminological theories explain criminal and deviant behavior using a biological, psychological, social, conflict, or multifactor component. Taking that into consideration in this paper I will be comparing and contrasting two of these theories the Social Conflict and Developmental theory of crime causation.
A Social Conflict theorist would most likely explain shoplifting as an alternative “means of achieving wealth, status, or even survival” that has otherwise been severely restricted by an upper class who possesses the ability to wield law as a source of power (p.200). Meanwhile a Developmental theorist would most likely argue that everyone has the potential for shoplifting considering that the propensity for crime is present in all but more prominent in some, and that a higher propensity for crime coupled with negative social experiences is what gives rise to crime. From the get go one can notice that the causes of crimes for both of these theories differ greatly. At the core of the Social Conflict theory is discord and between an upper and lower class the haves and the have not’s.

The first stage of Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory is the sensorimotor stage. The sensorimotor stage begins once an individual is born and ends around the time that the individual turns two years old (McLeod, 2015). Since the sensorimotor stage only lasts for approximately two years, it is the shortest stage of Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory. According to Santrock in our textbook, “in the sensorimotor stage infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical and motor actions” (Santrock, 2014, p. 95). Wood, Smith, and Grossniklaus state, “in this stage Infants cannot predict reaction, and therefore must constantly experiment and learn through trial and error” (Grossniklaus, Smith, & Wood, 2001). Wood, Smith, and Grossniklaus also state, “in this stage early language development begins” (Grossniklaus et al., 2001). Object permanence also begins in the sensorimotor stage (Grossniklaus, Smith, & Wood, 2001). According to our textbook, “object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched” (Santrock, 2014, p. 95). Child Development Theories Essay Paper
The sensorimotor stage consists of six different substages. The first substage of the sensorimotor stage is known as the stage of reflex acts. The reflex acts substage occurs during the first month of an infant’s life (McLeod, 2015). According to McLeod, “during the first subset the infant responds to external stimulation with innate reflex actions” (McLeod, 2015). The second substage of the sensorimotor stage is the stage of primary circular reactions, which lasts from the first month of life to the fourth month.

Child observation is relevant in social work because social workers deal with problematic situations, in which students have the opportunity to observe and reflect the characteristics of a child’s development in terms of physical and mental change. Observation has an important role in children’s play it shows the development progress as well as the child’s thinking about events.

The three major motor developmental theories are maturation, sensory processing and dynamic. Maturation refers to the biological growth processes that begin at conception and lead to the maturity of the body. These innate (inborn) changes occur in the body, brain and nervous system automatically in an orderly sequence at about the same time for most children. Because these changes are innate, they are not influenced by environmental experiences. Many of our basic abilities are closely tied to maturation. Maturation consists of three stages of motor development which are Equal Lateral (both sided motor movements), Lateral (one-sided motor pattern movements) and Bilateral (opposite side or cross pattern motor movements).

There are children who are hyperactive in their behaviour from the very beginning and thus need to have proper development. To deal with ADHD children some strategies must be followed which can ensure the proper development of ADHD child. The list of research paper topics on ADHD child development is prepared by the professionals and you can write research paper easily for your assignments on these topics.

  1. Why Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a big challenge to the parents the development of their child properly?
  2. Is there any treatment for the recovery from ADHD disorder throughout the development part of children?
  3. Why it is important to keep the ADHD child with special attention especially in the beginning part of their development?
  4. What could be the severe consequences of not catering child with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
  5. Medical diagnose and therapy session for the children going through ADHD disorder in their life from early period to adolescence.

There are basically four stages of child development that is infancy, childhood, adolescence and adult which needs to be given attention by the parents. Once their wards cross these stages the further life is not affected by the kind of atmosphere they are getting to that much. You can ask the scholars of Students Assignment Help to make my research paper help on child development topics.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

  1. Why basic development stages like phallic and oral stages are considered as most crucial stages for the development of a child?
  2. Is it important for the parents to understand the cause behind unique behaviour of their child in different time periods?
  3. What if a child is not getting the proper development through is four basic development parts?
  4. How the development criteria and care procedure changes for a child from infancy to adolescences.
  5. Is it possible to prepare and ensure the development of a child from the prenatal time by parents?

Psychological development of a child is very much dependable on the things that he grab from his society and family. Peer is also an important contributor in the psychology of a child and thus parents give much attention on friends of their children. So write best research paper by taking the research paper writing help from Students Assignment Help in the form of free topics.

  1. How the psychology of a child is affected by the society in which he is living during development stages?
  2. Role of psychologist to bring a child out from the autism by reading his behavioural psychology.
  3. Need of keeping a track on the different behaviours of a child during initial development period of life and understanding the moment when he or she needs to be taken to a psychologist.
  4. Consequences of not giving a proper attention to the psychological development of a child over the years of development.
  5. Why it is important to develop a child psychology and how to keep him away from the risk of underdeveloped psychology?

To gather information about the child we should consider a few aspects like, age, gender, place, time, environment, how is the child feeling and activities that the child goes through. It is relevant to emphasize the strengths of the observation when the child is playing football, and how he is communicating with the other children.

In this essay, I am going to reflect on my learning and the way it has informed my practice in developing a positive learning environment. I am going to demonstrate my understanding of the need of promoting enabling environment in early years and the changes in my practice since attending university. I will critically evaluate on my own reflective and evaluative skills and I will offer examples of implementing these skills into my practice. I will explain why I decided to nurture the areas from the action plan and how I can achieve the recommended proposals. I am going to evaluate other modules and I will identify the areas I found interesting and would like to study in more depth. At the end of this essay, I will reflect on the learning journey and the way it helped to shape my personal and professional life. I will include references, which review related issues, where eligible. Child Development Theories Essay Paper

I presented my setting to the peers at University and was pleased with the comments they made in regards to being a positive and enabling environment. After their presentations, I have realised how different settings are and yet how similar is the process of developing a positive environment that was visible in all presentations. We discussed various ideas and practices which we will implement in our own settings. It is not always easy to change practice in the setting that is already functioning to children’s, parents’ and management’s satisfaction, however, there is always room for improvement and listening to experiences of others encourages me to try it too. The work-based modules are beneficial for me and although I have learnt about methods that have been already present in my setting, I have realised why they are important and how to apply them.

Many children experience a common phenomenon known as the imaginary companion. This usually manifests itself in the creation of an invisible person that they engage in an active relationship with. While many parents are confused about how to approach and relate to their child and their child’s imaginary companion they should be assured that the process is quite normal. Imaginary companions are not a sign of mental illness but a normal healthy part of a child’s development (Taylor, 1999). Child Development Theories Essay Paper
Historical View of Imaginary Companions
Early research on imaginary companions was deficit focused in nature Some of the earliest research around the beginning of the 1900’s viewed it as a sign of a psychological disorder (Vostrovsky, 1895). A psychoanalytic perspective was taken in around the 1940’s but imaginary companions were then viewed as defense mechanisms for children who had personality defects (Hoff, 2005). Even the well known and respected Dr. Benjamin Spock felt that a child who spent too much time with an imaginary friend raised the question of whether the child was lacking something in their life. (Simpson). Research done by Marjorie Taylor in Imaginary Companions and the Children who Create Them discredits the idea that imaginary companions are created because of a deficit. Taylor instead says that while some imaginary friends may be created due to a loss of playmates or a birth of a new sibling “for many children creating imaginary others is just a fun thing to do” (1999). Marjorie Taylor also directed attention to the fact that random selection of children for the earlier studies did not occur.  Child Development Theories Essay Paper

The interview I conducted took place in the courtyard of my complex in Smallville, with the interviewee and myself. For the purpose of his paper and to protect the adolescent privacy lets call her Regina. Regina is a fourteen-year-old adolescent female of Africa American descent. She is above average in height and carries a very shy and nonchalance deposition. She is a very attractive young lady and does above average work in her school setting. She appears to be a normal every day child with a lifetime of experiences awaiting her.

How do parents influence child development?
Parents play a significant role in influencing their child’s development. Were you ever curious why you act the way you do? Why did you turn out the way you did? There are many factors that affect a child’s development. One being the attachment the child received during infancy, whether the child had a secure or unsecured bond with their parent. The second element is the types of parenting styles used while the child was developing. There are three components: authoritarian, permissive and authoritative. These two factors affect the child’s behavior. Parents influence their child’s development by the nature of attachment given during infancy; parenting styles used thus affecting their behavior. Has anyone ever told you that if a parent always picks up their baby the child too much the child will be spoiled? When my son was first born, I remember my mother telling me to stop picking him up. I asked “Why?” and she replied because if you keep doing it then he will be spoiled and think that every time he cries you will come running. On the contrary, research shows that the more responsive you are to an infant’s needs and wants the child will be less spoiled as the child gets older. (Bonding with Your Baby) “Attachment is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure”. (Cherry) “This relationship brings both parties together by ensuring that the need of the child is met. The attachment bond is the deep, lasting relationship that develops between you and your baby in the first few years of life. This bonding creates a unique relationship that shapes your baby’s development. It motivates you to pay close attention to your baby’s needs—to get up in the middle of the night for feeding, to notice when a diaper needs changing, and to understand what your baby’s different cries mean”. (Parenting Advice for Developing a Secure Attachment Bond) Most people do not understand that the bond between a parent and child has an everlasting impact on a child’s life. This unique relationship is created during the first couple years of the child’s life. This exclusive and everlasting relationship shapes the child’s development. The bonding process happens naturally as parents care for their baby. “In the 1990’s an explosion of learning uncovered the fact that this unique relationship, the attachment bond, is a key factor in your infant’s social, emotional, intellectual and physical development”. (Bonding with Your Baby) Dr. Bobby Sura, a clinical psychologist, chartered with the British Psychological Society emphasis on attachment between child and parent is important for providing the foundation of emotional security. Researcher Diana Baumrind identified three styles of parenting: authoritarian, permissive and authoritative. Authoritarian parents enforce rules also require obedience. This style of parenting is like “military style”. Lisa Jones, she was raised in an authoritarian household. She explains that when she was growing up her parents were extremely strict. They had many chores and very little privileges. Authoritarian parents hold their children to very high standards of achievement. Their desire for discipline is paramount, in this relationship there are low levels of love, nurturing and affection. (Duane, Grusec) Needless to say, authoritarian parents do not love their children but expressive it in a different way. Many children from this type of parenting have in equate success with love. (Authoritarian Parenting: An Overview) Permissive parents submit to their children’s desires. They have few demands and use very little discipline. When most people think about permissive parenting, they associate it with the child being in charge. Nicki Bradley, a writer for Parenting Magazine wrote “Permissive parents believe that showing their child love and feeling loved, in return, is the ultimate goal in parenting. Child Development Theories Essay Paper

Emotional Development:

Are you afraid of anything?
Yes, when my mom walks to the gas station and when she takes a long time to get back it scares me. I am afraid of spiders, because when I watch them on TV and they are in people’s bed and houses and if they bite you it makes a giant bite mark as big as a your hand, its inside is blue and the outside is red.

What makes you angry?
When people talk about me and my brother

Who do you look up to and why?
My dad, because he has a good job and he can be lazy whenever he wants to and he gets to buy whatever he wants.

What makes you cry?
I cry when my mom or dad gets mad at me and they scream at me. Why do they scream at you? They scream at me because I ignore my brother sometimes when playing video games and my dad doesn’t like it and a lot of times I am doing something my mom doesn’t want me to do so she gets mad too. Summary:

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Bryce is still in the middle to above average in the Emotional Development category he has a strong sense of right from wrong and is aware of consequences if he doesn’t make the right choices. He is more attentive to friendships and teamwork, however, his desire to be liked and accepted by other people is not that important to him just as long as he has his best friend Jalen to talk to and draw with. He is starting to develop more independence from his parents to where he doesn’t want to leave whenever his mom comes to pick him up and Jalen is still there. When with his friends or in group time I see that he expresses frustration in response to activities he doesn’t wish to participate in. Social Development:Introduction There is no one way to define family. The definition changes from family to family and individual to individual. With a changing definition of family comes a wide range of beliefs about parenting and what it means to be a “good” parent. I do not believe that there is one person out there who has the same exact parenting beliefs or no one set of parenting techniques that will work for everyone. Every person differs due to their environments and experiences within that environment. I completed two interviews with two separate sets of parents. I will now present you with a summary of the questions asked, a summary of their answers, and an analysis and synthesis of the old parenting research and new parenting research.Child Development Theories Essay Paper

The current interview process is in regards to a child who is four years old and was diagnosed with autism when he was two years old. Children with autism often display deficits in language, social interaction, behaviors, and sensory and perceptual processing (Case-Smith &ump; O’Brien, 2010). Therefore, the purpose of the current interview is to investigate the child’s overall needs, strengths, and weaknesses in regards to the child’s specific condition to gain an in-depth understanding of the child. The goal of the interview is to collect thorough information about the child to allow the practitioner to gain an understanding of the child and parent’s needs for therapy. Furthermore, the interview facilitates rapport between the practitioner and the child and parent and expresses the practitioner’s desire to understand and empathize with the child. It is important to establish a relationship with the child and the parent to allow for an open discussion and a successful intervention. The practitioner should establish proper eye contact and engage with the child properly to gain the child’s trust during the interview process. Structure of interviewing

The structure of the interview is made available so there are smooth transition within the interview. The questions are phrased in an open-ended form to promote more conversation with the client and allows the practitioner to gain more information about the client. The questions in the interview are directed to the parent due to the young age of the child and the child’s diagnosis of autism. Furthermore, according to Stone and Hogan (1993) “parents offer an unique perspective on the child’s behaviors, one that is acquired over time and across different contexts and input from parents provides an invaluable supplement to clinical observations.” The intake form is formatted in a style where the practitioner may easily ask the questions and transcribe the information from the client. The typical sections of the interview are the opening, body, and closure (Sommers-Flannagan,J. &ump; Sommers-Flannagan, R., 2003). The intake form contains information regarding demographics, medical history, treatment history, and developmental history in the opening section. In the body section of the interview, information about the occupational performance areas, performance skills, and performance patterns are addressed. Lastly, the interview concludes by requesting the personal goals and major concerns for the client and parent  Child Development Theories Essay Paper

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