Follow the instructions in this document as you proceed through this lab.Read through Chapter 11 in your lab manual (pg. 161 – 162, 166)This should have audio overlaysChapter 11 DNA Worksheet has been modified from your Lab Manual Chapter 11 to align with the online module. Please use this document as your lab report and submit in the Assignments link in Blackboard. (submit in by end of day Friday, April 24th).Do not waste time to do exercise, the teacher does not require the submission, start from the Lab report
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11
DNA WORKSHEET
EXERCISE 1: HOW DNA STORES INFORMATION (Do not submit this
Exercise; this is for your own practice)
Page 162 of Lab Manual: What is Complementary Base Pairing?
Test your understanding of complementary base pairing by building a piece of DNA for yourself.
Working from the “original DNA strand” (or left side of a DNA molecule) given in the box, build the
complementary DNA strand that would match it (i.e. build a right side). Then examine your
completed molecule and
answer the following
questions.
Original Strand
Complementary
of DNA
Strand of DNA
T
G
G
A
T
A
C
G
G
T
G
G
Within the DNA molecule, Adenine always base pairs with what other nucleotide?
Within the DNA molecule, Guanine always base pairs with what other nucleotide?
Why are there always equal amounts of Adenine and Thymine in a DNA molecule?
¦ LIFE SCIENCE LABORATORY
EXERCISE 2: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF MUTATIONS
(Do not submit this Exercise; this is for your own practice)
Observation: A mutation is a physical change in the genetic material. Many mutations involve the
substitution, insertion, or deletion of a single base pair in the DNA sequence. By causing a physical
change in the DNA sequence, information is altered which may bring about a change in a gene’s
protein product. If the change is significant, the phenotype of an organism may be affected, i.e. there
could be an observable change in appearance (structure), physiology (function), or behavior.
Ask a Question: Investigate the following question.
?
What effects can mutations have on protein products?
Develop a Hypothesis: Relative to the question posed, state your hypothesis in Part I of your lab report
(page 171).
Make Predictions: What do you predict will happen if your hypothesis is true? State your prediction in
Part I of your lab report (page 171).
Experiment: Your experimental question will be addressed using the same type of simulation you just
completed but completed in this document instead. You will be using the Tables 11.1(a – d) to transcribe
and translate four different DNA sequences. They all look the same, but if you look closely you will
notice each has a small difference in sequence, or mutation. Details of the experimental design should be
recorded in Part I of your lab report (page 171). Be sure to identify your independent, standardized, and
dependent variables. See Student Instructions for guidance on how to fill out the tables. Filling out the
tables will constitute performing the experiment.
Collect and Analyze Data: You will examine the outcome of three different mutations.
MUTATION 1: Assume that a mutation occurs in the fifth base of the original DNA strand such that
Thymine is replaced by Adenine (as in Table 11.1b, page 172). Follow through with
protein synthesis (steps 1-4 above) and investigate what effect this mutation has on the
nature of the protein formed. Be sure to record your results in Tables 11.1b (page 172)
and 11.2 (page 173) before moving on to the next mutation.
MUTATION 2: This time assume that a mutation occurs in the eleventh base of the original DNA
strand such that Guanine is replaced by Cytosine (as in Table 11.1c, page 172). Follow
through with protein synthesis (steps 1-4) and investigate what effect this mutation has
on the nature of the protein formed. Be sure to record your results in Tables 11.1c
(page 172) and 11.2 (page 173) before moving on to the next mutation.
MUTATION 3: This time choose a single base pair mutation of your own choosing as long as it is in
the third DNA set (i.e. positions 7, 8, or 9). Indicate the SINGLE change you made
in Table 11.1d (page 172) by crossing it out (or deleting it) and writing (or typing in) a
different nucleotide. Leave the other nucleotides in the triplet unchanged. If done
properly, 2 of the 3 letters should be the same as the original DNA strand.
Follow through with protein synthesis (steps 1-4) and investigate what effect this
mutation has on the nature of the protein formed. Be sure to record your results in
Tables 11.1d (page 172) and 11.2 (page 173).
Draw Conclusions: Inspect your data and draw conclusions regarding the degree to which predictions
based on your hypothesis were met.
LABORATORY 11
DNA ¦
LAB 11 REPORT: WHAT EFFECTS CAN MUTATIONS HAVE? (Submit
this online on Blackboard; page 171-176)
PART I Experimental Design
Observation: A protein product derived from a normal (not mutated) strand of DNA has already been
built and observed (Table 11.1a). It remains to be determined whether a change in a single base pair
of DNA (i.e. a mutation) will have an effect on the protein produced.
Question: What effects can mutations have on protein products?
Hypothesis: Relative to the question posed, what is your hypothesis?
I hypothesize that:
Predictions: If your hypothesis is true, what do you expect to occur?
We predict that if:
Experimental Design: What procedure did you use to test your hypothesis? For example,
The independent variable we manipulated was:
To establish what the standard or “normal” protein product was, we first synthesized a protein
using:
To determine if differences arose from mutations, we then synthesized proteins after:
The dependent variable that we measured was:
171 ¦
© kbhartney. Reproduced with permission from Hayden-McNeil/Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions (S20 only)
¦ LIFE SCIENCE LABORATORY
Data Collection: Record your results in Table 11.1a-d and 11.2. Be sure that during Mutation 3, you
replace only one of the bases in the third group (positions 7, 8, or 9) and record it in its appropriate
position in Table 11.1d keeping the letters of the nucleotides you did not change. (If done properly, 2 of
the 3 letters will be the same as the original DNA strand).
a. No Mutation (original DNA strand)
“amino acid”
DNA
mRNA
tRNA
ingredient
T
G
G
A
T
A
C
G
G
T
G
G
b. Mutation 1
DNA
mRNA
tRNA
“amino acid”
ingredient
T
G
G
A
A
A
C
G
G
T
G
G
Table 11.1 a-d. Nucleotide sequence of mRNA (codons) and tRNA (anticodons) corresponding to a
DNA strand under normal (no mutation) and experimental (introduced mutation) conditions.
(Above) a) No mutation (original DNA strand). b) Mutation 1: DNA strand has a mutation at 5th
base shown in red.
(Below) c) Mutation 2: DNA strand mutation at 11th base shown in red. c) Make up your own
mutation: bases 7, 8, and 9 are blank. Replace only one of the bases of position 7, 8, or 9. See
Student Instructions for more details on how to fill in Mutation 3.
c. Mutation 2
DNA
T
G
G
A
T
A
C
G
G
T
C
G
mRNA
tRNA
d. Mutation 3
“amino acid”
ingredient
DNA
mRNA
tRNA
T
G
G
A
T
A
T
G
G
¦ 172
© kbhartney. Reproduced with permission from Hayden-McNeil/Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions (S20 only)
“amino acid”
ingredient
DNA ¦
LABORATORY 11
PRODUCT
COLOR
SMELL
TASTE
No Mutation
(original)
Mutation 1
Mutation 2
Mutation 3
Table 11.2 Observations of “protein” products built by “normal” DNA and DNA subjected to
mutations at different positions.
Data Analysis: Describe the most obvious patterns or trends in the data. For example,
a. Relative to your results, did various mutations in the DNA always lead to a different protein
product?
b. For each “protein” product that was built, did you consider the mutation to have a positive,
negative, or neutral effect on the outcome? Why?
c. What resemblance does the nucleotide sequence of tRNA anticodons bear to the original DNA
sequence?
Draw Conclusions:
a. Based on the results you obtained by completing the simulation, do you reject or accept your
hypothesis?
b. What can you conclude about the effects of mutations?
173 ¦
© kbhartney. Reproduced with permission from Hayden-McNeil/Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions (S20 only)
¦ LIFE SCIENCE LABORATORY
PART II Explanation and Application of Concepts:
1. In your opinion, you may have found that some of your mutations were positive (e.g. you liked the
color or taste better than the original “recipe”), negative (e.g. the taste was awful, the color doesn’t
match your outfit), or neutral (e.g. ho-hum not a big deal; could take it or leave it). However, in the
real world, what determines if a change in the genetic make-up (DNA mutation) is “good”, “bad”, or
“has no effect”?
2. In the real world, what happens to organisms when a genetic change leads to a negative impact on
appearance or ability to function adequately?
If the mutation that causes these negative impacts is inheritable (passed onto offspring), would you
expect individuals carrying these mutations to become increasingly more common or less common in
the population over time?
Why?
Alternatively, if a mutation has a positive effect on survivorship, would you expect the expression of
this mutation among members of a population to become increasingly more common or less common
over time?
Why?
3. Some genetic mutations are inherited (e.g. sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, Down Syndrome), while
other mutations may be induced during the course of a life-time (lung and skin cancer). List three
mutagenic agents in our environment that are known to cause physical changes in the DNA
(mutations).
4. As indicated in the text, DNA profiling has many beneficial uses. However, what are two possible
drawbacks to widespread profiling augmented by the rapid proliferation of DNA-testing platforms
(e.g. 23andMe, Ancestry) and development of DNA databases (e.g. GEDmatch, CODIS, NDIS)?
¦ 174
© kbhartney. Reproduced with permission from Hayden-McNeil/Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions (S20 only)
DNA ¦
LABORATORY 11
The GENETIC CODE listed by mRNA CODONS for the 20 different amino acids
(“amino acid” ingredients used in the simulation are in parentheses)
U
U
C
F
I
R
S
T
L
E
T
T
E
R
SERINE
TYROSINE
CYSTEINE
(salt ¼)
(grape juice)
(white sugar ½)
(lt. brown sugar ½)
PHENYLALANINE
SERINE
TYROSINE
CYSTEINE
(salt ¼)
(grape juice)
(white sugar ½)
(lt. brown sugar ½)
LEUCINE
SERINE
(pineapple juice)
(grape juice)
STOP
STOP
LEUCINE
SERINE
(pineapple juice)
TRYPTOPHAN
(grape juice)
STOP
(dk. brown sugar ½)
LEUCINE
PROLINE
HISTIDINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(apple juice)
(lime juice)
LEUCINE
PROLINE
HISTIDINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(apple juice)
(lime juice)
LEUCINE
PROLINE
GLUTAMINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(cranberry juice)
(lime juice)
LEUCINE
PROLINE
GLUTAMINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(cranberry juice)
(lime juice)
ISOLEUCINE
THREONINE
ASPERAGINE
SERINE
(cherry juice)
(water)
(milk)
(grape juice)
(cherry juice)
G
G
PHENYLALANINE
ISOLEUCINE
A
SECOND LETTER
C
A
THREONINE
(water)
ASPERAGINE
SERINE
(milk)
(grape juice)
ISOLEUCINE
THREONINE
LYSINE
(cherry juice)
(water)
(chocolate milk)
METHIONINE
START (coca-cola)
THREONINE
(water)
ARGININE
(lime juice)
LYSINE
ARGININE
(chocolate milk)
(lime juice)
VALINE
ALANINE
ASPARTIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(tea)
(gingerale)
VALINE
ALANINE
ASPARTIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(tea)
(gingerale)
VALINE
ALANINE
GLUTAMIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(coffee)
(gingerale)
VALINE
ALANINE
GLUTAMIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(coffee)
(gingerale)
U
C
A
G
U
C
A
G
U
C
A
G
U
C
A
G
quantity each ingredient = 1 part per codon unless otherwise indicated as a fraction
175 ¦
© kbhartney. Reproduced with permission from Hayden-McNeil/Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions (S20 only)
T
H
I
R
D
L
E
T
T
E
R
¦ LIFE SCIENCE LABORATORY
Practice: Find the amino acid specified by the codon UGG. Use the 1st letter to narrow the search to a
set of 4 rows. The 2nd letter is then used to determine which column among those 4 rows the amino acid
lies. The 3rd letter indicates which one of the 4 boxes within the set of columns and rows defined by the
first two letters holds the amino acid coded for by UGG (answer: tryptophan).
¦ 176
© kbhartney. Reproduced with permission from Hayden-McNeil/Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions (S20 only)
Lab Investigation 11: How is genetic information expressed?
Student Instructions for Lab 11 Online Module (April 20-24th, 2020).
Follow the instructions in this document as you proceed through this lab.
Before beginning this module:
• Ensure you have every document you need (all documents have been posted by your instructor in
a clearly labelled folder, and made known via Blackboard)
• Read through Chapter 11 in your lab manual (pg. 161 – 162, 166)
• Go through “Lab 11 DNA Lecture PowerPoint”
• This should have audio overlays
• Chapter 11 DNA Worksheet has been modified from your Lab Manual Chapter 11 to align with
the online module. Please use this document as your lab report and submit in the Assignments
link in Blackboard. (submit in by end of day Friday, April 24 ).
• Remember, your answers should be your own. The policy on cheating and academic
integrity still applies. Do not copy from your classmates.
• If you encounter any difficulties in filling out or submitting pages of your lab report, let
your instructor know immediately.
• MS Office 365 is now available to CPP students for free. Please visit the following page
to download. You will have access to Word.
https://www.cpp.edu/it/students/cppmsoffice.shtml
th
The following instructions will guide you through this lab’s exercises:
Exercise 1 Instructions: (Do not submit, this is for your own practice)
Using your understanding of complementary base-pairing, fill in the bases in the Complementary Strand
of DNA column in the table. Answer the questions that follow.
Exercise 2 Instructions: (Do not submit, this is for your own practice)
This exercise is what your lab report answers should be based on.
Before you proceed, click on the hyperlink below to watch a YouTube video by Amoeba Sisters on
learning how to read a genetic code chart. Understanding this process will help you fill in the correct
“amino acid” (ingredient) in the “amino acid” columns of Tables 11.1 a – d.
How To Read A Codon Chart by Amoeba Sisters
Next, read exercise 4 in your online worksheet to get an idea of the point of this exercise. Make sure that
you keep in mind what the variables of this experiment seem to be (independent variables, dependent
variables, and standardized variables). After reading this page, you should have an overall idea of the
experiment but here are specific instructions:
1. Translate all 4 DNA sequences on page 172 to mRNA (there are 4 different tables, each table
having its own unique DNA sequence)
2. Now using the mRNA sequence as a guide (remember, the mRNA is in column 2 of each table),
create complementary tRNA sequences. This step is just to remind you that the tRNA has the
anticodon sequence that complementary base pairs with the codon and that the tRNA is
responsible for picking up the correct amino acid and bring it to the ribosome.
3. This step requires you to now use the mRNA to guide you to select the correct “amino acid”
ingredients:
o
o
o
ingredients are listed in a table at the end of this guide document as well as on page 175
of the worksheet (titled “The GENETIC CODE listed by mRNA CODONS for the 20
different amino acids”); notice these are simple ingredients with strong physical
characteristics (strong tastes, colors, and smells)
for each mRNA codon, find the correct “amino acid” ingredient in the table and add it to
column 3 under ‘“amino acid” ingredient’. Do this for all 4 tables. The table has the
codons bolded to remind you of which sequences should be considered for reading the
genetic code chart and which “amino acid” should be selected.
A little imagination is required for this experiment; after filling in the column for “amino
acid” ingredients that make up that particular protein and ask yourself these questions and
fill in description in Table 11.2
How would that taste?
How do you think it would smell?
What color would you expect?
After completing Tables 11.1 (a – d) and 11.2 you can now move on to Data Analysis, Draw
Conclusions, and Part II Explanation and Application Concepts of your worksheet.
Lab Report 11 Submission:
Submit your Lab Report 11 (page 171-176) using the link in Assignments by Friday, 4/24/2020
11:59PM. The simplest method for completing and submitting this worksheet is to open and complete the
document in Word, and submitting as a Word.doc file or take picture of your lab report and submit as
jpeg in multiple file submission.
* MS Office 365 is now available for free to all students. See download page link here:
https://www.cpp.edu/it/students/cppmsoffice.shtml.
* If you are encountering any difficulties with submitting your work, please contact your instructor
immediately.
Amino Acid Ingredients Guide Chart
(example codon: AUG = coca-cola; can you see how this was found?)
SECOND LETTER
U
F
U
C
A
G
PHENYLALANINE
SERINE
TYROSINE
CYSTEINE
(salt ¼)
(grape juice)
(white sugar ½)
(lt. brown sugar ½)
U
T
H
I
R
S
T
L
E
T
T
E
R
C
PHENYLALANINE
SERINE
TYROSINE
CYSTEINE
(salt ¼)
(grape juice)
(white sugar ½)
(lt. brown sugar ½)
LEUCINE
SERINE
(pineapple juice)
(grape juice)
STOP
STOP
LEUCINE
SERINE
(pineapple juice)
(grape juice)
STOP
LEUCINE
PROLINE
HISTIDINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(apple juice)
(lime juice)
LEUCINE
PROLINE
HISTIDINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(apple juice)
(lime juice)
C
A
TRYPTOPHAN
(dk. brown sugar ½) G
LEUCINE
PROLINE
GLUTAMINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(cranberry juice)
(lime juice)
LEUCINE
PROLINE
GLUTAMINE
ARGININE
(pineapple juice)
(orange juice)
(cranberry juice)
(lime juice)
ISOLEUCINE
THREONINE
ASPERAGINE
SERINE
(cherry juice)
(water)
(milk)
(grape juice)
ISOLEUCINE
THREONINE
ASPERAGINE
SERINE
(cherry juice)
(water)
(milk)
(grape juice)
U
C
A
G
U
C
A
ISOLEUCINE
THREONINE
LYSINE
ARGININE
(cherry juice)
(water)
(chocolate milk)
(lime juice)
METHIONINE
START (coca-cola)
THREONINE
LYSINE
ARGININE
(water)
(chocolate milk)
(lime juice)
VALINE
ALANINE
ASPARTIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(tea)
(gingerale)
VALINE
ALANINE
ASPARTIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(tea)
(gingerale)
A
G
U
C
G
VALINE
ALANINE
GLUTAMIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(coffee)
(gingerale)
VALINE
ALANINE
GLUTAMIC ACID
GLYCINE
(Dr. Pepper)
(lemon juice)
(coffee)
(gingerale)
A
G
I
R
D
L
E
T
T
E
R

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