Basal Metabolic Rate Of

Metabolism comes from a Greek word “metaballein” meaning to change or alter. Broadly speaking, metabolism may be defined as tissue change. It is the chemical process of transforming complex body substance into simple ones, along with the production of heat and energy. The rate of metabolism depends on the amount of physical work which the body does and therefore, can be reduced if the subject remains completely at rest. But even when all unnecessary movements are stopped a certain amount of energy is used in maintaining life and prevents processes from falling below the normal level. This cannot be further reduced without damage to the tissues. This amount of metabolism is considered the basal level.

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Basal metabolism is thus the term used to describe the biochemical changes which takes place while the individuals is lying down, still relaxed and warm. It could be said to be the energy required to maintain: cellular activity, respiration, circulation and other vegetative processes in the resting, fasting body. The rate at which energy is used up while the body is in this condition is defined as the basal metabolic rate (B.M.R.).Basal Metabolic Rate Of Adult Males In Port Harcourt Essay

Basal metabolic rate is therefore the rate at which the body uses energy for maintaining minimal bodily functions, such as: body temperature, respiration, and heart beat when at rest. This level of energy excludes: restlessness, fear, muscular movements, previous exercise, influence of food, elevation of body temperature, mental and physical initiation, as well as extremes of environmental temperature.

The total heat production or energy expenditure of the body is the sum of energy required merely for maintaining life (basal) and that required carrying out all undertaken physical activities and the effect of Specific Dynamic Action (S.D.A) of food. Heat production comes about as a result of oxidation of food at the tissue level; FOOD + 02 = ENERGY + C02.Basal Metabolic Rate Of Adult Males In Port Harcourt Essay

Oxygen consumption method is thus used to determine the rate of metabolism in the man because it relates to the amount of energy that is produced (INDIRECT CALORIMETRY). The heat produced is lost to the atmosphere from the exposed body surfaces. Through direct calorimetry, the amount of loss is measured.

The estimation of the basal metabolic rate is useful in a study of some diseases, notably in disorders of the thyroid gland. The precise knowledge of the calorie requirement for populations is of vital importance to a proper food distribution planning policy of any state or country.

The universally accepted value of basal metabolic rate for adult males is 40Kcal/m2/hr, 37K cal/m2/hr for adult females. The male and the young, shows tendencies for higher basal metabolic rate values. Clinically, the basal metabolic rate is expressed as a percentage above or below the accepted normal standard for specific ages. A deviation of + 15% from fixed value is accepted to be normal.

BASAL METABOLIC RATE MALES FEMALES

(B.M.R) IN KCAL/M2/HR 40.0 37.0

FOR ADULTS

The basal metabolic rate expressed as the calorie needs is measured in Kcal/m2/hr. It is estimated using the food normogram which was developed by W.M. Boothby and Sandiford.Basal Metabolic Rate Of Adult Males In Port Harcourt Essay

In Nigeria little work has been done in this area of study. The available standards are for whites with blacks. There is great need therefore to determine if the basal metabolic rate for adult females in port Harcourt relates in any to that abroad where work has been done and if there are differences between the various age groups

The term metabolism is used to refer to all the chemical and energy transformations that occur in all cells of the body. It involves those processes which provide the energy needed by an organism to exist in the environment and to accomplish work or activity.
Basal metabolism is the minimum amount of energy required by the body when completely at a relaxed state. It indicates the amount of energy needed to sustain the life processes: respiration, cellular metabolism, circulation, glandular activity and the maintenance of body temperature.
Measurement of basal metabolism, or the use of nutrients for energy, results in heat production. This heat is in turn dissipated through the skin and is measurable in a respiratory calorimeter. Since oxygen is required for oxidation of nutrients, oxygen consumption can be related for the heat production in the following formula Food: + 02 → energy + C02.Basal Metabolic Rate Of Adult Males In Port Harcourt Essay
The energy generated is expressed as an average of 4.825 Kcal or (20.19kj) per liter of oxygen consumed. This describes a diet of approximately 45% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 40% fat. Major shifts from this pattern will affect the respiratory quotient and the kilo calories per liter of oxygen consumed. It is customary to express basal metabolism as a relationship of heat production to body mass; that is, kilocalories per hour per square meter (m2) of surface area.
The importance of basal metabolism lies in the fact that then the basal metabolic rate (B.M.R.) is measured in a wide variety of different persons and comparisons are made within a single age, weight and sex groups, 85% of the normal persons have been found to have basal metabolic rates within 10% of the mean. Thus measurements of metabolic rates performed under basal conditions offer an excellent means for comparing the rates of metabolic from one person to another.
Basal metabolic studies have been used to determine endocrine activities, because the secretions of the endocrine glands are the principal regulators of the metabolic rate particularly those of the thyroid gland. When the supply of thyroxin is inadequate, the basal metabolic rate (B.M.R.) may fall 30 to 50% of the normal rate. If it is hyper-secretory the BMR may increase top almost twice the normal amount. In this regard an abnormal BMR has been used as a clinical indicator of thyroid function, and mal-function because one of the useful methods for diagnosing abnormal rate of thyroid secretion is to determine the BMR of the patient. A normal person usually has a BMR within 10 to 15% of normal. While the hyperthyroid person often has a BMR as high as 40 to 80% above normal and a hypothyroid person has a BMR as low as 40 to 50% below normal.
Nutritionally, it is through basal metabolic studies that the total energy requirement needed by an individual daily, to sustain life and to maintain desired weight is known.
The purpose of this study thus, is to determine the basal metabolic rate in a typical Nigerian population of adult males. Furthermore, in view of the different climatic conditions and dietetic habits, it is also necessary to determine whether the normal BMR standards established in the Western Countries agree with the values got in this work and to finally try to make possible deductions of how age, weight, height and surface area affect the BMR of the subjects studied. Basal Metabolic Rate Of Adult Males In Port Harcourt Essay

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