Write a paper (1,750-2,000 words) on cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process. Include the following in your paper:

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Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.
Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans.
Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why?Approach To Care Assignment Essay
Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care.
Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as an interdisciplinary research area.
You are required to cite to a minimum of four sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

RN-BSN

2.1: Incorporate liberal arts and science studies into nursing knowledge.

3.1 Utilize the nursing process to provide safe and effective care for patients across the life span.

Hi Team, Pls prepare essay. Here is the details. I have attached Details, rubric and resources Write a paper (1,100-1,500 words) describing the approach to care of cancer. In addition, include the following in your paper: 1. Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer. 2. Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects. 3. Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines. An abstract is not required.

Assignment: Approach to Care

Write a paper (1,100-1,500 words) describing the approach to care of cancer. In addition, include the following in your paper:

Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.
Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

The aims of this assignment are to provide a needs orientated approach to care using a nursing model alongside a nursing process in order to create a framework. The nursing model for the purpose of the assignment will be Roper, Logan and Tierney (RLT). A nursing model is used to determine what is important and relevant to providing individualized care (Barrett, Wilson, Woollands 2009). RLT state that a nursing model helps to identify the “core of nursing activities across any field of nursing practice” (Holland, Jenkins, Soloman and Whittam, 2004).Approach To Care Assignment Essay  This will be discussed in detail providing evidence of strengths and weaknesses of the model. The nursing process that will be discussed will be APIE which is assess, plan, implement and evaluate. A nursing process is a systematic approach which focuses on each patient as an individual ensuring that the patients holistic needs are taken into consideration. These include physical, social, psychological, cultural and environmental factors. . The nursing process is a problem solving framework for planning and delivering nursing care to patients and their families (Atkinson and Murray 1995). When used collaboratively the nursing model and the nursing process should provide a plan of care that considers the patient holistically rather than just focusing on their medical diagnosis (Moseby’s 2009). It will also discuss an example of a care plan done for a fictional patient Mabel Dunn and evaluate and discuss how the nursing plan and the nursing process have created a plan of care and how effective this was or was not.

Care planning is a highly skilled process used in all healthcare settings which aims to ensure that the best possible care is given to each patient. The Nursing and Midwifery council state that care planning is only to be undertaken by qualified staff or by students under supervision.Approach To Care Assignment Essay The Department of health (2009) says that ‘Personalised care planning is about addressing an individual’s full range of needs, taking into account their health, personal, social, economic, educational, mental health, ethinic and cultural background and circumstances’ with the aim of returning the patient to their previous state before they became ill and were hospitalized considering all of these needs to provide patient centered care. It recognizes that there are other issues in addition to medical needs that can impact on a person’s total health and well being.

It provides a written record accessible to all health professionals where all nursing interventions can be documented. Care planning is extremely important as it enables all staff involved in the care to have access to relevant information about the patients current medical problems and how this affecting them in relation to the 12 activities of living as well as any previous medical history. Barrett et al (2009) state that taking care of an individual’s needs is a professional, legal and ethical requirement.

This essay deals with the holistic assessment of a patient who was admitted onto the medical ward where I undertook my placement. Firstly, the relevant life history of the patient will be briefly explained. Secondly, the Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing that was used to assess the care needs of the patient will be discussed, and then the assessment process will be analysed critically. Identified areas of need will be discussed in relation to the care given and with reference to psychological, social, and biological factors as well as patho-physiology. Furthermore, the role of inter-professional skills in relation to care planning and delivery will be analysed, and finally the care given to the patient will be evaluated.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Throughout this assignment, confidentiality will be maintained to a high standard by following the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Conduct (2008). No information regarding the hospital or ward will be mentioned, in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998. The pseudonym Kate will be used to maintain the confidentiality of the patient.

The Patient
Kate, a lady aged 84, was admitted to a medical ward through the Accident and Emergency department. She was admitted with asthma and a chest infection. She presented with severe dyspnoea, wheezing, chest tightness and immobility. Kate is a patient known to suffer from chronic chest infections and asthma, with which she was diagnosed when she was young. She takes regular bronchodilators and corticosteroids in the form of inhalers and tablets. Kate lives on her own in a one bedroom flat. She has a daughter who lives one street away and visits her frequently. Her daughter stated that Kate has a very active social life; she enjoys going out for shopping using a shopping trolley.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Assessment of the Patient
Assessment Theory
In this ward, the Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing, which reflects on the twelve activities of living, is used as a base for assessing patients (Alabaster 2011). These activities are “maintaining safe environment, communication, breathing, eating and drinking, elimination, personal cleansing and dressing, controlling body temperature, mobility, working and playing, sexuality, sleeping, and dying” Holland (2008, p.9).

Elkin, Perry and Potter (2007) outlined nursing process as a systematic way to plan and deliver care to the patient. It involves four stages: assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Assessment is the first and most critical step of the nursing process, in which the nurse carries out a holistic assessment by collecting all the data about a patient (Alfaro-Lefevre 2010).Approach To Care Assignment Essay The nurse uses physical assessment skills to obtain baseline data to manage patients’ problems and to help nurses in the evaluation of care. Data can be collected through observation, physical assessment and by interviewing the patient (Rennie 2009). A complete assessment produces both subjective and objective findings (Wilkinson 2006). Holland (2008) defines subjective data as information given by the patient. It is obtained from the health history and relates to sensations or symptoms, for example pain. Subjective data also includes biographical data such as the name of the patient, address, next of kin, religion etc. Holland defines objective data as observable data, and relates it to signs of the disease. Objective data is obtained from physical examination, for example of blood pressure or urine.

Before assessment takes place, the nurse should explain when and why it will be carried out; allow adequate time; attend to the needs of the patient; consider confidentiality; ensure the environment is conducive; and consider the coping patterns of the patient (Jenkins 2008). The nurse should also introduce herself to help reduce anxiety and gain the patient’s confidence. During assessment, the nurse needs to use both verbal and non-verbal communication. Using non-verbal communication means that she should observe the patient, looking at the colour of the skin, the eyes, and taking note of odour and breathing. An accurate assessment enables nursing staff to prioritise a patient’s needs and to deal with the problem immediately it has been identified (Gordon 2008). Documentation is also very important in this process; all information collected has to be recorded either in the patient’s file or electronically (NMC, 2009b).Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Carrying out the Assessment
Kate was allocated a bed within a four-bed female bay. Her daughter was with her at the bedside. Gordon (2008) stated that understanding that any admission to hospital can be frightening for patients and allowing them some time to get used to the environment is important for nursing staff. Kate’s daughter was asked if she could be present while the assessment was carried out, so that she could help with some information, and she agreed. Alfaro-Lefevre (2008) recommended that nursing assessments take place in a separate room, which respects confidentiality, and that the patient be free to participate in the assessment. Although there was a room available, Kate’s daughter said it was fine for the assessment to take place at the bedside because her mother was so restless and just wanted to be next to her. The curtains were pulled around the bed, though William and Wilkins argued that it ensures visual privacy only and not a barrier to sound. NMC (2009a) acknowledges this, along with the need to speak at an appropriate volume when asking for personal details to maintain confidentiality.

The assessment form that was used during Kate’s assessment addressed personal details and the twelve activities of living. A moving and handling assessment form was also completed because of her immobility. First, personal details such as name, age, address, nickname, religion, and housing status were recorded. Information was also recorded about any agency involved, along with next of kin and contact details, and details of the general practitioner. Holland (2008) stated that these details should be accurate and legible so that, in case of any concerns about the patient, the next of kin can be contacted easily. The name and age are also vital in order to correctly identify the patient to avoid mistakes. Knowing what type of a job the patient does or the type of the house she lives in helps to indicate how the patient is going to cope after discharge. Holland also insisted that religion should be known in case the patient would like to have some privacy during prayers, and this should be included in the care plan.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

The second assessment to be done focused on physical assessment and the activities of living. Barrett, Wilson and Woollands (2009) suggested that when enquiring about the activities of living, two elements should be addressed: usual and current routines. Additionally, identifying a patient’s habits will help in care planning and setting goals. During physical assessment, when objective data was collected, Kate demonstrated laboured and audible breath sounds (wheezing) and breathlessness. Use of accessory muscles and nose flaring was also noted. She was agitated and anxious. Her vital signs were: blood pressure 110/70; pulse 102 beats /min; respirations 26/min; temperature 37.4 degrees Celsius; oxygen saturation 88%; peak flow 100 litres; weight 60kg; and body mass index 21. Taking and recording observations is very important and is the first procedure that student nurses learn to do. These observations are made in order to detect any signs of deterioration or progress in the patient’s condition (Field and Smith 2008). Carpenito-Moyet (2006) stated that it is important to take the first observations before any medical intervention, in order to assist in the diagnosis and to help assess the effects of treatment.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Kate’s initial assessment was carried out in a professional way, taking account of the patient’s particular circumstances, anxieties and wishes. After the baseline observations were taken, the twelve activities of living were analysed and Kate’s needs were identified. Among the needs identified, breathing and personal hygiene (cleansing) will be explored.

Identified Care Needs
Breathing
Wilkinson (2006) states that a nursing diagnosis is an account about the patient’s current health situation. The normal breathing rate in a fit adult is 16-20 respirations/minute, but can go up to 30 due to pain, anxiety, pyrexia, sepsis, sleep and old age (Jenkins 2008). In old people, muscles become less efficient, resulting in increasing efforts to breathe, causing a high respiratory rate. On assessment, Kate’s problem was breathing that resulted in insufficient intake of air, due to asthma. She was wheezing, cyanosed, anxious and had shortness of breath.

Wilkinson (2006) explained that a goal statement is a quantifiable and noticeable criterion that can be used for evaluation. The goal statement in this case would be for Kate to maintain normal breathing and to increase air intake. The prescription of care for Kate depended on the assessment, which was achieved by monitoring her breathing rate, rhythm, pattern, and saturation levels. These were documented hourly, comparing the readings with initial readings to determine changes and to report any concerns. The other part of the plan was to give psychological care to Kate by involving her in her care and informing her about the progress, in order to reduce anxiety. Barrett, Wilson and Woollands (2012) stated that it is very important to give psychological care to patients who are dyspnoeic because they panic and become anxious.

Checking and recording of breathing rate and pattern is very important because it is the only good way to assess whether this patient is improving or deteriorating, and it can be a very helpful method for nurses to evaluate whether or not the patient is responding to treatment (Jamieson 2007). Mallon (2010) stated that, if the breathing rate is more than 20, it indicates the need for oxygen. Blows (2001), however, argued that this can happen even after doing exercise, not only in people with respiratory problems. Griffin and Potter (2006) stated that, respirations are normally quiet, and therefore if they are audible it indicates respiratory disease. Nurses needs to be aware of these sounds and what they mean, for example a wheezing sound indicates bronchiole constriction. Kate’s breathing was audible and the rate was also above normal and that is why breathing was prioritised as the first need.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Oxygen saturation level was also monitored with the use of a pulse oximeter. The normal saturation level is 95-99% (British National Formulary ((BNF)) 2011a). Nevertheless the doctor said that 90-95% was fine for Kate, considering her condition and her age. Kate was started on two litres of oxygen and she maintained her oxygen saturation between 90 and 94%. The peak expiratory flow was monitored and recorded to identify the obstructive pattern of breathing that takes place in asthma (Hilton, 2005). This is another method that is used to assess the effectiveness of the medication (inhalers) the asthmatic patient is taking, and this test should be carried out 20 minutes after medication is administered. It is the Trust’s policy to do hourly observations on patients who have had one, two or three abnormal readings, until readings return to normal. Kate was observed for any blueness in the lips and tongue and for oral mucosa as this could be a sign of cyanosis. All the prescribed nebulisers, inhalers, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics and oxygen therapy were administered according to the doctor’s instructions. Bronchodilators are given to dilate the bronchioles constricted due to asthma, and corticosteroids reduce inflammation in the airway (BNF 2011b). Kate was also started on antibiotics to combat the infection because, on auscultation, the doctor found that the chest was not clear.

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Kate was nursed in an upright position using pillows and a profiling bed in order to increase chest capacity and facilitate easy respiratory function by use of gravity (Brooker and Nicol, 2011). In this position, Kate was comfortable and calm while other vital signs were being checked. Pulse rate and blood pressure were also being checked and recorded because raised pulse can indicate an infection in the blood.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Cleansing
Due to breathlessness and loss of mobility it was difficulty for Kate to maintain her personal hygiene. Hygiene is the practice of cleanliness that is needed to maintain health, for example bathing, mouth washing and hair washing. The skin is the first line of defence, so it is vital to maintain personal cleansing to protect the inner organs against injuries and infection (Hemming 2010). Field and Smith (2008) stated that personal cleansing also stimulates the body, produces a sense of well-being, and enables nurses to assess the patient holistically. Personal hygiene is particularly important for the elderly because their skin becomes fragile and more prone to breaking down (Holloway and Jones 2005). Therefore this need was very important for Kate; she needed to maintain her hygiene as she used to, before she was ill.

The goal for meeting this need was to maintain personal hygiene and comfort. The care plan prescribed involved first gaining consent from Kate, explaining what was going to be done. Hemming (2010) recommended that identifying the patient’s usual habit is very important because each individual has different ideas about hygiene due to age, culture or religion. Identifying usual habits helps individuals to maintain their social life if things are done according to their wishes. Though Hemming said all human beings need personal hygiene, Holland (2008) argued that it is important to ask patients how they feel about being cleaned, especially in private areas. Kate indicated that she didn’t mind being assisted with washing and dressing. She preferred washing daily, shower and a hair wash once a week, and a mouth wash every morning and before going to bed.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Kate was assisted with personal care 5-10 minutes after having her medication, especially the nebuliser. Individuals with asthma experience shortness of breath whenever they are physically active (Ritz, Rosenfield and Steptoe 2010). After having medication Kate was able to participate during personal hygiene. According to NMC guidelines on confidentiality (2009a), privacy and dignity should be maintained when giving care to patients. Therefore, whenever Kate was being assisted with personal care, it was ensured that the screens were closed and she was properly covered. Field and Smith (2008) suggested that assisting a patient with personal hygiene is the time that nurses can assess the patient holistically. Since Kate was immobile, it was very important to check her pressure areas for any redness. She was also checked for any pallor, jaundice, cyanosis or dry skin that needed attention. The care was always carried out according to her wishes.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

The Role of Inter-Professional Skills
Considering Kate’s age and condition, she needed multi-professional teamwork. NMC (2008) encourages teamwork to maintain good quality care. Kate was referred to the respiratory nurse who is specialised in helping people with breathing problems. Since Kate was on oxygen since admission, the respiratory nurse taught her the importance of healthy breathing and taught her some breathing exercises to help wean her from oxygen. Kate was also referred to the physiotherapist who did breathing exercises with her. Kate was not able to walk without aid so she was also referred to the occupational therapy department to assess how she was going to manage at home, or if she required aids to help her manage the activities of living. Upon meeting together, all the multi-disciplinary team agreed that Kate needed a care package, as she could no longer live without care. She was referred to social services so that they could assess this aspect of Kate’s future.

After one week Kate was medically fit but could not go home because she was waiting for the care package to be ready. Her nurse shared information with the multi-disciplinary team in order to establish continuity of care for Kate. The team prepared for her discharge: the occupational therapy staff went to visit her home to check if there was enough space for her walking frame; social services arranged for a care package; and her nurses referred her to the district nurse to help her with her medication and make sure it did not run out.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Outcome
Kate responded well to the medication she was prescribed; normal breathing was maintained, her respirations became normal, ranging from 18 to 20 respirations per minute, and her oxygen saturation ranged from 95% to 99%. Kate was able to wash and dress herself with minimal assistance. She was discharged on a continuous care package comprising care three times a day, and the district nurse helped her with the medication to control her asthma.

Evaluation
The model of the twelve activities of living was followed successfully on the whole. The nurse collected subjective and objective data, allowing a nursing diagnosis to be formulated, goals to be identified and a care plan to be constructed and implemented. Privacy is very important in carrying out assessments, and this was not achieved fully in Kate’s assessment. However, this lower level of privacy has to be balanced against causing anxiety to the patient. Kate’s daughter thought that the bedside assessment would be more comfortable for her mother, and therefore cause least anxiety. This was very important because of the effects of potential panic on breathing; therefore, this was the correct balance to strike.

A multi-disciplinary team was involved in meeting Kate’s care goals. This is a good example of the use of inter-professional skills, as a number of different departments were involved in creating and implementing the care plan. However, the system was not as efficient as it should have been: Kate spent unnecessary time in hospital after recovery because the care plan was not yet in place.

Assessment can also take a long time, especially with the elderly who are usually slow to respond. Therefore, more time is needed to be sure that the necessary progress has been achieved before taking further steps. However, poor staffing also affects performance in this area, an observation supported by the Royal College of Nursing (2012).Approach To Care Assignment Essay

In conclusion, the assessment of this patient was completed successfully, and the deviation from best practice recommendations (the lower level of privacy) was justified by the clinical circumstances. Progress from assessment to care goals was good, and at this point an inter-disciplinary team was used successfully. However, the one flaw in this process was delays, caused partly by the difficulties of working across different departments, and partly, it seems, by staff shortages.

There are many different nursing models all of which have strengths and weaknesses and it’s up to the nurse to choose the right one for individual patient, the model which is used will vary between different specialties depending on which is more relevant to the patient and their illness and needs. Although a vast majority of hospitals now use pre-printed care plans it is important to remember that not all the questions on them will be relevant to all patients. An example of this would be that activity of breathing may not have any impact on a healthy young adult be would be a major factor for an elderly man with COPD.

There are four stages to the nursing process which are Assess, plan, implement and evaluate (APIE) but Barrett et al state that there should be six stages to include systematic nursing diagnosis and recheck (ASPIRE) as although they are included in the nursing process they are not separate stages and could be overlooked.(Barrett et al 2009). It is important that a nursing process is used and it is set out in a logical order, the way in that the nurse would think this helps minimize omissions or mistakes. Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing suggests that there are five interrelated concepts which need to be taken into consideration when planning and implementing care which are activities of living, lifespan, dependence/independence continuum, factors influencing activities of living and individuality in living (Roper, Logan and Tierney 2008).Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Assessment
Assessment is a fundamental nursing skill required to gather all the information required about the patient in order to meet all or their needs (Hinchliff, Norman and Schober 2008). ‘Assessment is extremely important because it provides the scientific basis for a complete nursing care plan’ (Moseby’s 2009). The initial assessment untaken by nurses is to gather information regarding the patients needs but this is only the beginning of assessing as the holistic needs of the patient including physical, physiological, spiritual, social, economic and environmental needs to be taken into consideration in order to deliver appropriate individualized care (Roper, Logan and Tierney 2008). When using the 12 activities of living (ALs) for assessment it gives a list a basic information required but must not just be used as a list as the patient will respond better to questions asked in an informal manner and when just part of the general conversation. RLT (2008) state that although every AL is important some are more important than other and this can vary between patients. It is important for nurses to obtain appropriate information through both verbal and non-verbal conversation patients are more likely to give correct information but without jumping to conclusions or putting words into their mouths. ‘Assessment is the cornerstone on which a patients care is planned, implemented and evaluated (RLT 2008). ‘Poor or incomplete assessment subsequently leads to poor care planning and implementation of the care plan’ (Sutcliffe 1990). Information can be gained from the patient, the patients family and friends as well as any health records (Peate I, 2010)Approach To Care Assignment Essay

During this process of gathering information it is important to find out what the patient can do as well as what they cant. , McCormack, Manley and Garbett (2004) state that gathering the information requires a certain kind of relationship between the nurse and the patient and nurses need to be able to communicate effectively in order to be able to build this relationship. A full assessment needs to consider how the patient was before they became ill or hospitalized in relation to their medical diagnosis as well as how the patient was dealing with it, how they are now, what is the change or difference if any, do they know what is causing the change, what if anything they are doing about it, do they have any resources now or have they have in the past to deal with the problem (barrett et al). RLT (2008) state that there are 5 factors that influence the 12 activities of living which are biological, psychological, sociocultural, environmental and politicoeconomic, these may not all have an effect on each patient but all need to be taken into consideration.The more information gained in the assessment process the easier the other steps will follow. RLT (2008) suggest that assessing is a continuous process and that further information will be obtained through observations and within the course of nursing the patient. At the end of the initial assessment the nurse should to identify the problems that the patient has.

There are limitations to using a nursing process which are the 12 als are often used as a list as part of a core care plan and are not always individualized Walsh (1998) argues that the 12 activities of living may just be used as a list which could result in vital information being missed which could be detrimental to the patient.Approach To Care Assignment Essay The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC 2008) states a nurse is personally and professionally accountable for actions and omissions in practice and any decisions made must always be justifiable. There are many benefits to using a nursing process it is patient centered and enables individualized care for each patient. It also gives patients input into their own care and gives them a greater sense of control it is outcome focused using subjective and objective information which helps and encourages evaluation of the care given. It also minimizes any errors and omissions.

When I carried out the assessing stage on mabel I did this using the 12 activities of living as suggested by Roper et al (2008) but this was used too much like a checklist. I didn’t gather enough information in order to be able to do the best plan of care possible for her although I don’t feel this could have been detrimental to the care she received it needed more information than I had. I also found it difficult deciding which information should go where so I ended up repeating information in more than one of the 12 als, Which although this wouldn’t have made a difference to the planning of the care plan there was too much irrelevant information which could mean that it wasn’t read thoroughly just skimmed over as it would take too much time. As I am inexperienced in doing this I realized when writing the care plan that there were many questions that I didn’t ask so there where many parts that could not be filled in. I also didn’t gather enough objective data for certain parts so I didn’t have any evidence that the care had worked or how effective it had been.

If using ASPIRE rather than APIE the next stage would be systematic nursing diagnosis where a nursing diagnosis is established which differs from the medical diagnosis but the two do overlap (Barrett et al 2009). The nursing diagnosis takes into account the medical diagnosis as well as the holistic needs of the patient considering their biopsychosocial and spiritual needs (Hinchliff et al 2008) and the effect these may have on the patient and how they deal with their illness. The next part of the systematic diagnosis is to establish baselines of where the patient is now in relation to the 12 als and their illness and set goals accordingly in collaboration with the patient in a way in which they understand (Barrett et al 2009).Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Planning
The next stage of the nursing process is planning this is where all the information gained in the assessment part to plan the care of the patient. The planning stage of the process is where achievable goals need to be made through discussion with care givers and the patient or the patients representative. Kemp and Richardson (1994) Suggest that ‘One of the advantages of goal setting is that it can act as a stimulus for the patient’ and encourages them to work towards this. The plan of care is to solve the actual problems the patient has and to prevent potential problems from becoming actual ones, it also aims to help the patient cope with their illness in a positive way and to make them as comfortable and pain free as possible (RLT 2008).

Marriner (1983) states that ‘The patient should be included in the planning of his nursing care’ goals set need to be agreed with nursing staff, the patient and the patients relatives or representative although some of them will be more focused towards the patient and some of them will require the expertise of the nurse. Individualised care aims to have the best possible outcome for the patient by educating the patient and involving them in their care.

There are disadvantages to providing individualized care one of these being the time it takes to write the care plan which is why core care plans are often used but Roper et al (2000) say that these can be used effectively when used appropriately such as in post-operative care. Although when using core care plans it is important not to standardize care as patient react differently to illnesses and treatments. Faulkner (2000) Suggests that one of the benefits of using a core care plan is that potential problems can be foreseen.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

The more information gathered in assessment the easier the plan of care will be. The main objective of a nursing plan is to ‘provide the information on which systematic, individualized nursing can be based and individualized nursing can be based and implemented by any nurse’ (RLT 2008). Through a detailed individualized plan of care any nurse caring for a particular patient should be able to see exactly what is required of them as all the information will be recorded in the care plan. The NMC (2008) says that nursing interventions need to be specific for that particular patient, based on best evidence, measurable and achievable.

There are many different criteria for setting goals just one of these is PRODUCT which stands for, Patient centered, recordable, observable and measurable, directive, understandable and clear, credible and time related. This is just meant as a way of helping nurses to set goals by giving them guidelines to follow (Barrett et al 2009). When planning care a great emphasis needs to be based on the dependence/independence continuum which will have been established in the assessment phase.Approach To Care Assignment Essay  The care to be given will encourage the patient to get back to as reasonably possible or as close to where they were on the continuum as they were before they were admitted to hospital. Planning also needs to take into account the resources available to implement the care as they need to ensure that the care they are planning is achievable and will not be compromised by lack of resources or a shortage of nursing staff (Roper et al 2008).

When I did a plan of care for mabel it quickly became evident how inexperienced I was. I didn’t gather enough information in the assessing period to be able to do an effective plan of care. I also didn’t know how achievable the goals where as I wasn’t aware of how long they would take to improve or if they where achievable or not, I also found it difficult determine which problems were interrelated and as a result tried to link anxiety in with another problem when in fact it was a problem on its own. I was able to write the needs statements effectively that were not long but on a couple of these the influencing factors were missed out which would be necessary when providing holistic care. Planning care for a patient requires a great deal of knowledge in the chosen specialty which is why it must be carried out by a qualified member of staff or a student under supervision.

Implementation
Implementation is the next part of the nursing process and where all the goals which were set in the planning stage are put into motion and the goals can start to be achieved through nursing and medical interventions. ‘Implementation is the actual giving of nursing care’(Marriner 1983).This is done with nursing staff, the multidisciplinary team members involved in the patients care such as doctor, dieticians and physiotherapists and the patient themselves in order for the patient to be able to return to how they were previously before they were admitted to hospital.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

The plan of care will be specific to the particular patient and will focus on the biopsychosocial aspects of the patient (Marriner 1983) and how these will affect the patients ability to carry out the activities of living.

Implementation also provides emphasis on individualized care which is why it is important to establish in the previous phases where they are on the dependence/independence continuum and what they are able to do now and what they were able to do before. If this hasn’t been established then it will be impossible to evaluate how effective the care has been.

Individualised care is associated with how the patient did things before such as how the person carries out the ALs and how often they carry these out. An example of this would be when carrying out the AL of personal cleansing and dressing to individualise the care it would be necessary to have determined in the assessing stage how the patient usually did this and how often it wouldn’t be individualized if in the care plan it was stated that they got a shower every morning if at home they only did this once a week. The NMC (2008) state that nurses are required to ‘Make the care of people your first concern, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignity’.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Core care plans may be used in certain situations this can provide a greater level of care as potential problems can be foreseen if related to a certain problem on the other hand it is also important not to standardize care as patients react differently to different illnesses and treatment. (Faulkner A, 2000).

In order to deal with certain problems or situations people often develop coping strategies which can be either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive coping strategies are usually helpful to the patient whereas maladaptive ones could be detrimental to their health such as smoking or drinking, the patient may feel this helps them to deal with a present situation but it is actually causing them harm. Patients need to be discouraged from using maladaptive coping strategies this could be done by introducing them to adaptive coping strategies and encouraging them to change their maladaptive ones into adaptive ones.

During the implementation of Mabel I found that although I was able to implement the care effectively I hadn’t recognized all of the nursing interventions needed to provide holistic care and I wasn’t fully aware of timescales of the planned care. I feel I also needed to research further into Mabel’s problems in order to gain the appropriate knowledge to provide the best care available as this would ensure that are the interventions are evidence based and best practice (NMC 2008).Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Barrett et el (2008) state that this is where recheck should take place which would enable the health care provider to establish how effective the plan of care is before the treatment ends this would enable them to re-evaluate the plan of care while the treatment is still ongoing and adjust the goals accordingly.

Evaluation
Evaluation is where the care that has been given can be assessed to evaluate the care given and whether it has worked or not. Chalmers (1986) describe that it is an ongoing and continuous process and also occurs at timed points in a formal setting.

Roper et al (2000) say that evaluating care also provides a basis for ongoing assessment, planning and evaluation.

There are two different parts to evaluation summative evaluation and formative evaluation. Formative evaluation is done with the patient taking into account whether they feel the care given has worked when done with consideration of the dependence/independence continuum information regarding the patients previous place on the dependence/independence continuum can be obtained from the patient, their friends and relatives as well as other health care professionals in the multidisciplinary team involved in the care of the patient.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Summative evaluation is when the holistic view of the patient is taken into consideration how they feel about the treatment, whether they felt that the goals were achievable. It so where all the measureable data stated in the baselines and data received after this time is analyzed to show how effective or not the treatment has been.

When evaluating care consideration needs to be given to the influencing factors such as biological factors as the bodies physical ability varies according to age the physical ability of an older person is generally less efficient, therefore the plan of care needs to take this into consideration so that when the evaluation takes place it its hoped to have been effective. A nurse needs to evaluate her patient’s status regularly for some patients this will be just once a day but for others it will be much more frequent depending on their illness and healthcare status. RLT (2008) says that evaluation must be individual to the specific patient and not just a standard goal that is related to a specific problem. If goals haven’t been achieved then it is up to the nursing staff to determine why. Maybe the goals set weren’t measureable or achievable. Parsley and Corrigan (1999) say that if goals haven’t been measureable or achievable then new goals need to be set. It could also be that the nursing interventions were not successful in which case new interventions should be set.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

There are also legal and ethical issues that may have an impact when evaluating care The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC 2002) state ‘you must obtain consent before you give any treatment or care’. If consent wasn’t gained then the care to be implemented wouldn’t have been effective and goals will not have been achieved.

Through my evaluation of Mabel it was evident that I did not require all the information to do a comprehensive plan of care. Although I did set baselines which meant I could compare data I wasn’t experienced enough to set goals to the correct timeframe I also didn’t obtain enough measureable information in certain problems to be fully able to assess how effective or ineffective the care had been. Had I had more experience I feel that the evaluation wouldn’t be a problem. Evaluation requires checking and rechecking in order to see the effectiveness of the care delivered. It requires knowledge and expertise to be able to effectively evaluate and amend the goals and interventions set as necessary. The whole care planning process took me a long time and I still was not very good at certain aspects of it. When setting goals a lot of detailed information is required in order for the plan of care to be effective so I can now understand why it is necessary for a trained member of staff to carry out the task.Approach To Care Assignment Essay

Conclusion
This assignment has shown that when used together the nursing process and the nursing model provide a good basis to providing care. It sets out a systematic approach to providing care. Care needs to be set out in a way that both the nurse and the patient know exactly what is happening as well as any other health care professional in the multidisciplinary team providing care for the patient. It has also shown that involving patients in their care enables them to feel they are part of the team and are more likely to help themselves with their care. Approach To Care Assignment Essay

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