She attended Pasadena College where she majored in nursing and received a Baccalaureate of Arts degree in 1964. She continued with her education and received a master’s degree from the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing (UCSF) in 1970 and a doctor of philosophy degree in 1982. Benner was an associate professor and then a professor in the Department of Physiological Nursing.
Benner has received the American Journal of Nursing Book of the year not once, but four times for her publications. She first received the award in 1984, then again in 1989, 1996 and 1999. She also once received the American Journal of Nursing media CD-ROM award for Clinical Wisdom and Interventions in Critical Care: A Thinking-in-Action Approach (Alligood, 2014). She has published numerous books: From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice; The Primacy of Caring: Stress and Coping in Health and Illness; Caregiving: Readings in Knowledge, Practice, Ethics, and Politics; The Crisis of Care: Affirming and Restoring Caring Practices in the Helping Professions; Nursing Pathways for Patient Safety Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation; Interpretive Phenomenology in Health Care Research Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
Patricia Benner, a well-known nursing theorist who published From Novice to Expert, theorizes how a nurse should progress through their career. Benner’s theory explains what stage of nursing one is in based on your education and the amount of time one has worked in a specific nursing field. She describes the five stages of the theory: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. While this theory has its limitations, it is beneficial to the well-being of both the nurse and patient and that is proven by real world clinical practice.
In the book Nursing Theorists and Their Work, Martha Raile Alligood gives a great background history on Benner and a description of her theory:
In 1964 Patricia Benner obtained her baccalaureate of arts degree from Pasadena College, and in 1970 she earned a master’s degree in nursing, with major emphasis in medical-surgical nursing, from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Nursing. . . . Her PhD in stress, coping, and health was conferred in 1982 at the University of California, Berkley, and her dissertation was published in 1984.
1, Provide substantive comments that include a focus on the application of the theory as a framework for practice (general or specific, basic or advanced). 2, Comment on the usefulness of Benner’s work in your present or future role. Provide several examples.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
Benner’s work is based on the work of two brothers, one a mathematician and one a philosopher who developed the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition. Both brothers played chess, but only one became a true master of the game. It was an attempt to understand this difference, which led to their theory proposing that expertise is only achieved through experience and holistic integration. Moreover, they theorized that this process results in personal knowing, which cannot be explained by cognitive knowledge alone (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1986). Expert practice is situational and more than application of rules; specifically, expert practice develops over time as nurses encounter patients and are involved in authentic human transactions (Alligood and Tomey, 2006).
Benner’s research was started in the early l970s and continues to this day. Initially, Benner set out to identify domains and competencies of nursing practice by interviewing nurses regarding their practice and observing practice. Much of her work has continued to be in the identification of the domains and competencies of basic and advanced practice nursing. The initial domains of basic nursing practice, as listed in Alligood and Tomey (2006, p. 133), are:Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
1. The helping role
2. The teaching-coaching function
3. The diagnostic and patient-monitoring function
4. Effective management of rapidly changing situations
5. Administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions and regimens
6. Monitoring and ensuring the quality of health care practices
7. Organizational and work-role competencies
From Novice to Expert
Patricia E. Benner
This page was last updated on September 16, 2011
Dr Patricia Benner introduced the concept that expert nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time through a sound educational base as well as a multitude of experiences.
She proposed that one could gain knowledge and skills (“knowing how”) without ever learning the theory (“knowing that”).Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
She further explains that the development of knowledge in applied disciplines such as medicine and nursing is composed of the extension of practical knowledge (know how) through research and the characterization and understanding of the “know how” of clinical experience.
She coneptualizes in her writing about nursing skills as experience is a prerequisite for becoming an expert.
ABOUT THE THEORIST
Patricia E. Benner, R.N., Ph.D., FAAN is a Professor Emerita at the University of California, San Francisco.
BA in Nursing – Pasadena College/Point Loma College
MS in Med/Surg nursing from UCSF
PhD -1982 from UC Berkeley
1970s – Research at UCSF and UC Berkeley
Has taught and done research at UCSF since 1979
Published 9 books and numerous articles
Published ‘Novice to Expert Theory’ in 1982
Received Book of the Year from AJN in 1984,1990,1996, 2000
Her web address is at: http://www.PatriciaBenner.com
Her profile can be obtained at http://nurseweb.ucsf.edu/www/ix-fd.shtml
LEVELS OF NURSING EXPERIENCE Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
She described 5 levels of nursing experience as;
Beginner with no experience
Taught general rules to help perform tasks
Rules are: context-free, independent of specific cases, and applied universally
Rule-governed behavior is limited and inflexible
Ex. “Tell me what I need to do and I’ll do it.”
Demonstrates acceptable performance
Has gained prior experience in actual situations to recognize recurring meaningful components
Principles, based on experiences, begin to be formulated to guide actions
Typically a nurse with 2-3 years experience on the job in the same area or in similar day-to-day situations
More aware of long-term goals
Gains perspective from planning own actions based on conscious, abstract, and analytical thinking and helps to achieve greater efficiency and organization
Perceives and understands situations as whole parts
More holistic understanding improves decision-making
Learns from experiences what to expect in certain situations and how to modify plans
No longer relies on principles, rules, or guidelines to connect situations and determine actions
Much more background of experience
Has intuitive grasp of clinical situations
Performance is now fluid, flexible, and highly-proficient
Different levels of skills reflect changes in 3 aspects of skilled performance:
Movement from relying on abstract principles to using past concrete experiences to guide actions
Change in learner’s perception of situations as whole parts rather than in separate pieces
Passage from a detached observer to an involved performer, no longer outside the situation but now actively engaged in participation Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE THEORY
These levels reflect movement from reliance on past abstract principles to the use of past concrete experience as paradigms and change in perception of situation as a complete whole in which certain parts are relevant
Each step builds on the previous one as abstract principles are refined and expanded by experience and the learner gains clinical expertise.
This theory changed the profession’s understanding of what it means to be an expert, placing this designation not on the nurse with the most highly paid or most prestigious position, but on the nurse who provided “the most exquisite nursing care.
It recognized that nursing was poorly served by the paradigm that called for all of nursing theory to be developed by researchers and scholars, but rather introduced the revolutionary notion that the practice itself could and should inform theory.
Nursing practice guided by the human becoming theory live the processes of the Parse practice methodology illuminating meaning, synchronizing rhythms, and mobilizing transcendence
Research guided by the human becoming theory sheds light on the meaning of universal humanly lived experiences such as hope, taking life day-by-day, grieving, suffering, and time passing
RESEARCH ON BENNER’S THEORY
Towards an alternative to Benner’s theory of expert intuition in nursing: a discussion paper
An evaluation of the seminal work of Patricia Benner: theory or philosophy?Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
A response by P. Benner to K. Cash, “Benner and expertise in nursing: a critique”
Benner and expertise in nursing: a critique
Intuition as a function of the expert nurse: a critique of Benner’s novice to expert model
Dracup and Bryan-Brown. From Novice to Expert to Mentor Shaping the Future – American Journal of Critical Care. 2004;13: 448-450.
Jane Corrigan Wandel. The Institute for Nursing Healthcare Leadership Conference: Reflections on the Impact of Patricia Benner’s Work. Medscape Nurses. 2003;5(2). Accessed on 5-04-2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462607
The aim of this report is to look at a critical incident that occurred in placement and relate this to the theory and knowledge regarding communication and interpersonal skills, so as to demonstrate an understanding of my views on the art and science of reflection and the issues surrounding reflective practice Reflection is part of reflective practice and a skill that is developed. It can be seen as a way of adjusting to life as a qualified healthcare professional and enhancing the development of a professional identity (Atwal & Jones, 2009).Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
Reflection is defined as a process of reviewing an experience which involves description, analysis and evaluation to enhance learning in practice (Rolfe et al 2001). This is supported by Fleming (2006), who described it as a process of reasoned thought. It enables the practitioner to critically assess self and their approach to practice.
Reflective practice is advocated in healthcare as a learning process that encourages self-evaluation with subsequent professional development planning (Zuzelo, 2010). Reflective practice has been identified as one of the key ways in which we can learn from our experiences.
The incident that was chosen was so for the reasons that the situation made the student aware of inadequacies on his own part and those of the staff on the team, which made him reflect upon the situation and how this could be learned from, so as not to make the same mistake again.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
Before the critical incident is examined it is important to look at what a critical incident is and why it is important to nursing practice. Girot (1997), cited in Maslin-Prothero, (1997) states that critical incidents are a means of exploring a certain situation in practice and recognising what has been learned from the situation. Benner (1984, cited by Kacperek, 1997) argues that nurses cannot increase or develop their knowledge to its full potential unless they examine their own practice.
Confidentiality will be maintained as required by the Nursing Midwifery Council Code (NMC, 2008).
In order to provide a framework for methods, practices and processes for building knowledge from practice, there are several models of reflection available. All can help to direct individual reflection. Reflective models, however, are not meant to be used as a rigid set of questions to be answered but to give some structure and encourage making a record of the activity.
John’s (2004) model reflects on uncovering the knowledge behind the incident and the actions of others present. It is a good tool for thinking, exploring ideas, clarifying opinions and supports learning.
Another model, Schon (1987), however, identifies two types of reflection that can be applied in healthcare, ‘ Reflection-in-action’ and ‘Reflection-on-action’. Reflection-in-action can also be described as thinking whilst doing. Reflection-on-action involves revisiting experiences and further analysing them to improve skills and enhance future practice.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
Terry Borton’s (1970) 3 stem questions: ‘What?’, ‘So What?’ and ‘Now What?’ were developed by John Driscoll in 1994, 2000 and 2007. Driscoll matched the 3 questions to the stages of an experiential learning cycle, and added trigger questions that can be used to complete the cycle. However, Driscoll (2006) notes that reflective practice is often represented as a choice for health professionals, whether to be reflective or not to be, about their clinical practice.
Finally, Gibbs (1988) reflective cycle is fairly straightforward and encourages a clear description of the situation, analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis to make sense of the experience, conclusion where other options are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what one would do if the situation arose again.
In spite of all these models’ advantages, there are known barriers which prevent practitioners being able to reflect effectively and time plays a huge role. Smyth (2004) questions whether there is any time to think and be reflective because of the busy work environment that practitioners are involved in.
In this report, I have chosen to use Gibb’s Reflective Cycle (1988) as a framework, because it focuses on different aspects of an experience and allows the learner to revisit the event fully. Gibbs (1988) will help me to explore the experience further, using a staged framework as guidance and I feel that this is a simple model, which is well structured and easy to use at this early stage in my course. This model comprises of a process that helps the individual look at a situation and think about their thoughts and feelings at the time of the incident; and consists of six stages to complete one cycle. Its cyclical nature starts with a description of the situation. This includes e.g. where were you; who else was there; why were you there; what were you doing; what were other people doing. Next is to analysis of the feelings that is, trying to recall and explore those things that were going on inside your head?Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
The third stage is an evaluation of the experience; making a judgement regarding the reasons behind the event and its possible consequences.
The fourth stage is an analysis to make sense of the experience. At this stage the event is broken down into its component parts so they can be explored separately. The fifth stage is a conclusion of what else could I have done; the creation of insight through the reflective process towards individual roles within the event being considered. And final stage is an action plan to prepare if the situation arose again. That is, recognitions leading towards behavioural adjustments where faced with similar events in the future (NHS, 2006). The use of this model represents a fundamental shift from the ideas of Kolb in that Gibbs’ model specifically refers to the key processes within reflection itself, rather than as reflection as a process within general learning.
Reflective practice can mean taking our experiences as an initial point for our learning and developing practice (Jasper, 2003). Many literatures have been written in the past that suggest the use of reflective assignments and journaling as tools to improve reflection and thinking skills in healthcare (Chapman et al, 2008). Reflective journals are an ideal way to be actively involved in learning (Millinkovic & Field, 2005) and can be implemented to allow practitioners to record events and document their thoughts and actions on daily situations, and how this may affect their future practice (Williams & Wessel, 2004). The experience gained in this can then be used to deal with other situations in a professional manner.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
By contemplating it thus, I am able to appreciate it and guided to where future development work is required.
Context of incident
In the scenario the patient’s name will be given as Xst. The consequences of my actions for the client will be explained and how they might have been improved, including what I learned from the experience. My feelings about the clinical skills used to manage the client’s care will be established and my new understanding of the situation especially in relation to evidence based practice will be considered. I will finally reflect on what actions I will take in order to ensure my continued professional development and learning.
Xst is 55 year old woman who has a 10 year old daughter. She suffers from psychiatric problems, lack of motivation and has difficulties in maintaining her personal hygiene and the cleanliness of her flat. She was one of my mentor’s clients to whom I had been assigned to coordinate and oversee her care under supervision. Nurses owe their patients a duty of care and are expected to offer a high standard of care based on current best practise, (NMC 2008).Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
Xst had been prescribed Risperidone Consta 37.5mg fortnightly, which is a moderate medication. Risperidone belongs to a group of medicines called antipsychotic, which are usually used to help treat people with schizophrenia and similar condition such as psychosis. Xst did not like attending depot clinic and she missed three consecutive appointments. My mentor decided after the third non-attendance to raise the issue in the handover meeting where it was decided to see Xst in the morning but when we arrived she was not there. We left a note for her to call the office. We did not hear from her and a further home visit was carried out to arrange for her next depot clinic appointment. I was asked to call a meeting of the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) who, at the meeting agreed that there would be a problem if the next injections were missed.
At the next clinic, we waited for about an hour but she failed to attend. At a subsequent meeting with the patient, she agreed a joint visit with the CPN, my mentor and me to re-assess her condition and consider if it was necessary to refer her case to the Consultant.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
I was given the opportunity to participate in the assessment, which showed that her behaviour was very unpredictable and very forgetful. Her inability to take her medication and to manage her personal hygiene clearly demonstrated that she was not well and indeed, had no insight into her illness and was in denial (Barker, 2004). However, the patient had been very upset because of the lack of communication and interpersonal skills that the staff and the student had displayed.
I talked to Xst about her non-concordance with her medication, whilst stroking her hand but she persisted in saying she was well. I reminded her that continuous use of the medication would benefit her mental health and protect her against relapse. We agreed that she could discuss this with the doctor on her next outpatient appointment, with the option of reviewing or reducing her medication. I stressed the importance of her communicating any side effects or reservations she may have about the medication to doctor. She appeared to understand this and following the discussion, she finally complied with her depot injection.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
During the handover, I was nervous as I felt uncomfortable about giving feedback to the whole team. I was worried about making mistakes during my handover that could lead to inappropriate care being given to Xst or could cause her readmission to hospital. As a student nurse I felt I lacked the necessary experience to be passing information to a group of qualified staff members. However, I dealt with the situation with outward calm and in a professional manner. I was very pleased that my mentor was available during the handover to offer me support and this increased my confidence.
What was good about the experience was that I was able to carry out the initial assessment and identify what caused Xst failure to comply with the treatment regime. From my assessment I documented the outcome and related what had happened to the MDT with minimal assistance. Accurate documentation of patient’s care and treatment should communicate to other members of the team in order to provide continuity of care (NMC, 2008). The experience has improved my communication skills immensely, I felt supported throughout the handover by my mentor who was constantly involved when I missed out any information. Thomas et al, (1997) explains that supervision is an important development tool for all learners. The team were very supportive throughout the process as they took my information without doubt.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
What was not good about the experience was the fact that my mentor had not informed me that I was going to handover the information; as a result I had not mentally prepared myself for it. I also felt that I needed more time to observe other professionals in the team carrying out their handovers before I attempted to carry out mine. During the first MDT meeting, I felt that we did not provide enough time to freely interact with Xst to identify other psychosocial needs that could impact on her health. However, in any event, she was unable to fully engage because of her mental state. Turley (2000) suggests that nursing staff should include their interaction with the patient when recording assessment details, which can be used to provide evidence for future planning and delivery of care. Dougherty and Lister (2004) have suggested that healthcare professionals should use listening as part of assessing patient problems, needs and resources.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
The literature regarding communication and interpersonal skills is vast and extensive. Upon reading a small amount of the vast literature available, the author was able to analyse the incident, and look at how badly this situation was handled. I realised communication is the main key in the nursing profession as suggested by Long (1999) who states that interpersonal skills are a form of tool that is necessary for effective communication. The behaviour of the person listening to the person who is talking is important during the interpersonal process (Burnard, 1992).The author used touch to convey support, genuineness and empathy, which is essential for the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). Carl Rogers (1967, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) recommended three principal conditions necessary for effective counseling: empathic understanding, congruence or genuineness and unconditional positive regard. The terms genuineness and congruence are used interchangeably and used to describe the helper always being real in the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002).Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
I found it difficult to communicate with the patient initially because I did not understand her condition ( Adams,2008). It was also difficult for me not to take her behaviour to heart and show emotion at the time and thought this to be a failure. Even though the NMC (2008) maintains that nurses have a responsibility to empower patient in their care and to identify and minimise risk to patient, the principle of beneficence (to do well) must be balanced against no maleficence (doing no harm) (Beauchamp and Childress, 2001). All these transactions were recorded in Xst’s care plan file and on computer. Good record keeping is an integral part of nursing and midwifery practice, and is essential to the provision of safe and effective care. It is not an optional extra to be fitted in if circumstances allow NMC (2009). The consequences of my actions for the patient and her daughter were that she attended to her daughter’s needs and to her personal hygiene, and made regular fortnightly visits to the clinic. Her mental condition was improved. She was allowed to continue on her moderate medication and she did not have to be readmitted in the hospital.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
However, Bulman & Schutz (2008) argue that this failure is to educate and for us to learn from practice and develop thinking skills. I would agree with them, as I learn best from practical experience, and build on it to improve my skills. With this is mind, I am now going to focus on my weaknesses, in both theory and practice, and state how, when and why I plan to improve on these.
Through effective communication I was able to convince Xst of the need to take her medication. I was able to pass on the information to the MDT for continuity of care. Roger et al (2003) concluded that communication is an on-going process but can be a difficult process when dealing with mental health problems. Whilst talking I attempted to use Egan’s SOLER (Egan, 1990, cited in Burnard, 1992).The SOLER acronym is an aid to identifying and remembering the behaviours that should be implemented in order to promote effective listening (Burnard, 1992). I Sat facing Xst; assumed an Open posture; Leaned towards Xst slightly (in order to express interest); maintained Eye contact and attempted to appear Relaxed, as advised by Egan. During the handover I was pleased that the MDT members were supportive and interested in what I was saying and they asked questions.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
My mentor explained that a patient with schizophrenia can often behave like this as they develop dementia, which Noble (2007) also confirms. Since the incident I have read about schizophrenia and I am now aware that the patient’s expressionless face Netdoctor (2008), also made her comments appear more confusing and aggressive.
In conclusion, I have learnt that through effective communication, any problem can be solved regardless of the environment, circumstances or its complexity. Therefore, nurses must ensure they are effective communicators. I have identified the weaknesses that should be turned to strengths. I am now working on strengthening my assertiveness, confidence and communication skills. Participating in the care of Xst I have realised that a good background information and feedback about mental health problems before providing care to clients can assist in accurate diagnosis and progress monitoring. A good relationship between client and staff nurse is therapeutic and help in building trust. This can be achieved by a free communication that allows the client to express their feelings and concern without the fear of intimidation. From the experience, I feel the knowledge I have acquired will aid me in future practice should such situation arise again.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
So that I could identify my strengths and weaknesses in both theory and practice easily, I found that the use of a SWOT analysis provided a good framework to follow. I have then built on this by producing a development plan that focuses on my weaknesses and how, when and why I plan to improve on them. I will now begin to work on these, the main reason being of course, that I am determined to be a competent, professional nurse in the future. I am now more prepared for any future patients with this disease as I have researched it. I will take the time to talk to them, to make sure they are at ease with me, before providing any care. If they appear distressed I would get another member of staff to help me to reassure them.
To improve my knowledge about patients’ illnesses and the risks of relapse associated with not taking medication.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
To identify and have good background information and feedback about patients’ mental health problems before providing care to them.
To ensure a good rapport exist between my patient and I, in order to build up a therapeutic relationship with them and to gain their trust.
To have effective communication with the patients and other members of the multidisciplinary team and being prepared.
Planned action to meet these learning needs
I aim to read books about different illnesses and causes of relapse and to read my patient’s notes.
I will be talking with senior members of staff and allocating time to talk to patients and their relatives and participating in the ward round. Finally, I will have regular meetings with my clients.
Target time to meet the learning needs
I hope by the end of third year and some will be on-going skills to develop throughout the training.
I have clearly demonstrated that by using a reflective model as a guide, I have been able to break down, make sense of, and learn from my experience during my placement. At the time of the incident I felt very inadequate Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
It was also difficult for me not to take her behaviour to heart and show emotion at the time, it is clear that this is an area I need to build on for the future. Nursing requires effective preparation so that we can care competently, with knowledge and professional skills being developed over a professional lifetime. One way this can be achieved is through what some writers refers to as technical rationality, where professionals are problem solvers that select technical means best suited to particular purposes. Problems are solved by applying theory and technique.Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
The invaluable use of non-verbal communication has now become clearer to the author. The author believes he has become more self-aware regarding his own non-verbal communication and hopes that in the future he will use his communication skills to become a better advocate for the patient in his care. Applying The Theory Of Benner In The Nursing Area Essay
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